11:01:11 - Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine

11:01:11 - Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine - Sodium - Na 30% of...

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Unformatted text preview: Sodium - Na 30% of Na is located on surface of bone crystals. Remainder is in the extracellular fluid, nerve and muscle tissue. Sources: Primary source for the American diet is salt added to food: 1 tsp = 2300 mg Canned foods Smoked/processed foods Cheese Condiments Natural: Milk, meat, eggs, vegetables DRI mg/day 1-3 1000 4-8 1200 Males 9 50 1500 51 -70 130 0 >70 1200 Females 9 50 1500 51 70 1300 > 70 1200 *** Average American consumes 3-5 g/day*** Absorption 95 100% is absorbed 5% lost in the feces 3 pathways for absorption: 1) Na+ /glucose cotransport pathway throughout the small intestine 2) Na+ /Cl- cotransport pathway small intestine and proximal large intestine 3) sodium absorption pathway principally in the colon Transport Sodium transported freely in the blood. Fig. 11-12, p. 454 Functions Maintain fluid balance Maintain acid-base balance Nerve transmission/impulse conduction Muscle contraction Interactions with other nutrients : Calcium - Na Ca excretion, Ca excretion in feces, Ca absorption Deficiency - Hyponatremia Does not normally occur. But can see with excessive sweating. Symptoms: muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, shock and coma. If serum osmolality is low: Can indicates volume loss Water + Na loss, Na loss > water loss : 1)Loss via GI tract: diarrhea, vomiting gastric suction, fistula 2) Loss via skin: burns, excessive sweating, 3) Third spacing: ascites, bowel obstruction, peritonitis, pancreatitis 4) Lungs: bronchorrhea 5) Renal loss: diuretics, renal disease, osmotic diuresis (ketones, glucose urea), primary adrenal Clinical Situations Can be seen when serum osmolality is low: Water + Na increase, Water > Na : 1) Edema forming states: Congestive Heart Failure, Cirrhosis, Nephrotic Syndrome 2) Acute or Chronic Renal Failure Toxicity - Hypernatremia Tends to only be seen as a result of a clinical situation. Again tied to total volume or change in volume of ECF (extracellular fluid). 1) Can see with total volume depletion in rate of water loss is greater than Na loss....
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11:01:11 - Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine - Sodium - Na 30% of...

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