11:03:11 - Phytochemicals

11:03:11 - Phytochemicals - Phytochemicals •...

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Unformatted text preview: Phytochemicals: • Phytochemicals: phytos is the Greek work for plants. - can be any of the thousands of chemicals found in plants of dietary significance. - No single class of chemicals, but many classes diverse in structure. Example: a tomato contains over 10,000 different phytochemicals. • A single phytochemical is present in plants in multiple forms: a variety of glycosylated forms (bound to sugars) and the aglycone (non sugar) form. • Phytochemicals are not vitamins or minerals. They are not essential to humans and are therefore considered non-nutrient dietary components. • They are secondary metabolites in plants: not necessary for normal growth and reproduction, but lack will result in impairment of survivability. • In plants, they are defensive molecules. The two major pathways for the production of phenolic compounds in plants. Visioli F et al. Cardiovasc Res 2000;47:419-425 Copyright © 2000, European Society of Cardiology Carbohydrate metabolism Erythrose-4-P + PEP DAHP Quinate Shikimate Indoleacetic acid Tryptophan Alkaloids Tyrosine Chorismate Phenylalanine Cinnamate Cyanogenic glycosides p-hydroxy cinnamate Flavanoids The shikimate pathway is the biosynthetic sequence employed by plants and bacteria such as E. coli to generate the aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), and tryptophan (Trp): . Liu R H J. Nutr. 2004;134:3479S-3485S ©2004 by American Society for Nutrition Classes of phytochemicals Polyphenols – contain a phenol ring. Sub classes: flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids and tannins. Terpenes –composed of derivative of isoprene units (5-carbon chains) linked together. Includes monoterpenes, diterpines, Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids), saponins Organosulphides – contain sulfur. Includes dithiolthiones (isothiocyanate) and thiosulphonates (allium compounds). Indoles, glucosinolates – tend to have an amine group (nitrogen). Includes glucobrassicin, alliin & allicin. Polyphenols Flavonoids – red, blue, purple pigments Flavonols: Quercitin – red/yellow onion, tea, wine, apples, cranberries, buckwheat beans. Gingerol – ginger Kaempferol – strawberries, gooseberries, cranberries, peas, brassicates, chives Isoflavones: Genistein – soy, alfalfa, sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, other legumes Daidzein – same as above Anthocyanins (flavanals) and Anthocyanidins – red wine, many red, purple or blue fruits and vegetables Flavan-3-ols: Epigallocatechin 3-gallate – green tea Theaflavin-3-gallate – black tea Flavones: Apigenin – chamomile, celery, parsley Flavanones : Hesperidin – citrus fruit Nargenin – citrus fruit Polyphenols continued Phenolic acids/Hydroxycinnamic acids Egallic acid – walnuts, strawberries, cranberries blackberries Gallic acid – tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy Salicylic acid – peppermint, licorice, peanut, wheat Tannic acid – tea, nettles, berries Capsaicin – chili peppers Caffeic acid – pear, basil, oregano, apple Chlorogenic acid – echinacea, strawberries, pineapple, coffee, sunflower, blueberries...
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11:03:11 - Phytochemicals - Phytochemicals •...

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