11:03:11 - Phytochemicals

11:03:11 - Phytochemicals - Phytochemicals: Phytochemicals:...

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Unformatted text preview: Phytochemicals: Phytochemicals: phytos is the Greek work for plants. - can be any of the thousands of chemicals found in plants of dietary significance. - No single class of chemicals, but many classes diverse in structure. Example: a tomato contains over 10,000 different phytochemicals. A single phytochemical is present in plants in multiple forms: a variety of glycosylated forms (bound to sugars) and the aglycone (non sugar) form. Phytochemicals are not vitamins or minerals. They are not essential to humans and are therefore considered non-nutrient dietary components. They are secondary metabolites in plants: not necessary for normal growth and reproduction, but lack will result in impairment of survivability. In plants, they are defensive molecules. The two major pathways for the production of phenolic compounds in plants. Visioli F et al. Cardiovasc Res 2000;47:419-425 Copyright 2000, European Society of Cardiology Carbohydrate metabolism Erythrose-4-P + PEP DAHP Quinate Shikimate Indoleacetic acid Tryptophan Alkaloids Tyrosine Chorismate Phenylalanine Cinnamate Cyanogenic glycosides p-hydroxy cinnamate Flavanoids The shikimate pathway is the biosynthetic sequence employed by plants and bacteria such as E. coli to generate the aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), and tryptophan (Trp): . Liu R H J. Nutr. 2004;134:3479S-3485S 2004 by American Society for Nutrition Classes of phytochemicals Polyphenols contain a phenol ring. Sub classes: flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids and tannins. Terpenes composed of derivative of isoprene units (5-carbon chains) linked together. Includes monoterpenes, diterpines, Carotenoids (tetraterpenoids), saponins Organosulphides contain sulfur. Includes dithiolthiones (isothiocyanate) and thiosulphonates (allium compounds). Indoles, glucosinolates tend to have an amine group (nitrogen). Includes glucobrassicin, alliin & allicin. Polyphenols Flavonoids red, blue, purple pigments Flavonols: Quercitin red/yellow onion, tea, wine, apples, cranberries, buckwheat beans. Gingerol ginger Kaempferol strawberries, gooseberries, cranberries, peas, brassicates, chives Isoflavones: Genistein soy, alfalfa, sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, other legumes Daidzein same as above Anthocyanins (flavanals) and Anthocyanidins red wine, many red, purple or blue fruits and vegetables Flavan-3-ols: Epigallocatechin 3-gallate green tea Theaflavin-3-gallate black tea Flavones: Apigenin chamomile, celery, parsley Flavanones : Hesperidin citrus fruit Nargenin citrus fruit Polyphenols continued Phenolic acids/Hydroxycinnamic acids Egallic acid walnuts, strawberries, cranberries blackberries Gallic acid tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy Salicylic acid peppermint, licorice, peanut, wheat Tannic acid tea, nettles, berries Capsaicin chili peppers Caffeic acid pear, basil, oregano, apple Chlorogenic acid echinacea, strawberries, pineapple, coffee, sunflower, blueberries...
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11:03:11 - Phytochemicals - Phytochemicals: Phytochemicals:...

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