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11:22:11 - Review for Exam III (Part 1)

11:22:11 - Review for Exam III (Part 1) - Minerals Major or...

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Minerals Macro minerals: Calcium – Ca Phosphorus - Ph Magnesium - Mg Sodium - Na Potassium - K Chloride - Cl Sulfur – S Major or macro minerals: necessary in amount >100 mg/day Cations: Ca, Na, K Anions: Cl, S, Mg, Ph Micro minerals: necessary in amounts < 100mg/day. Micro minerals or trace minerals: Iron – Fe Zinc – Zn Copper – Cu Selenium – Se Chromium – Cr iodine – I Manganese – Mn Molybdenum 0 Mo
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Mineral Male DRI Female DRI Calcium 1000 mg 1000 mg Phosphorus 700 mg 700 mg Magnesium 420 mg 320 mg Sodium 1300 mg 1300 mg Potassium 4700 mg 4700 mg Chloride 2300 mg 2300 mg Iron 8 mg 18 mg Zinc 11 mg 8 mg Copper 900 µg 900 µg Selenium 55 µg 55 µg Iodine 150 µg 150 µg DRI for adult males and females for minerals *** Average American consumes 3-5 g/day of sodium***
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Ca P Mg Na K Cl Milk Meat Coffee Salt Prune juice Salt Yogurt Poultry Tea Canned foods Bananas Eggs Cheese Eggs Nuts Smoked foods Cantaloupe Meat Tofu Milk Legumes Processe d foods Mango Seafood Chinese Cabbage Legumes beans Cheese legumes Food Sources for Macro Minerals
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Heme Fe Non heme Fe Zn Cu Se I Meat Nuts Seafood Oysters Cereal Seawater fish Poultry Fruit Liver Liver Grains Milk fish Green leafy veggies Beef Nuts Meat Yogurt Beans Veal Seeds Dairy Eggs grains Cheese cocoa beans Food Sources for Micro Minerals
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Calcium Most abundant mineral in the human body. Makes up 1.5-2% of total body weight Bones and teeth contain 99% of total body calcium Remaining 1% is distributed between intra- and extracellular fluids. Absorption rate: can be as high as 75%. Adults about 30% Key points: higher amounts in adolescence goes up again in older adults
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The state of the American diet Average dietary intakes of calcium in the U.S. are well below the adequate intake recommendation for every age and gender group, especially in females. Only about 25% of boys and 10% of girls ages 9 to 17 are estimated to meet the AI recommendations. Dairy foods provide 75% of the calcium in the American diet. Calcium. Updated in October 2007 by: Victoria J. Drake, Ph.D. Linus Pauling Institute Oregon State University it is typically during the most critical period for peak bone mass development that adolescents tend to replace milk with soft drinks .
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Lifecycle effects of Absorption Stimulated by: 1) presence of VD/calcitriol 2) <400 mg diet 3) growth periods 4) pregnancy + lactation Inhibited by: 1)Decreased calcitriol production 2)High plasma phosphorus 3)Estrogen deficiency, seen during menopause Absorption from GI Tract: Active transport in duodenum and proximal jejunum Diffusion in jejunum and ileum Can be impacted by nutrients/substances in the diet
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Table 11-2, p. 433 Milk: Fortification Lactose Husks of Cereal grains Only concern if vegan diet and Consuming >30 g fiber Found in: spinach rhubarb chard beets celery eggplant greens okra squash berries some nuts tea, ovaltine & cocoa Compete for absorption Ca forms soaps with fatty acids
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Transport Ca can be transported in 3 forms: 1) bound to protein (albumin and pre albumin 2) in complex with sulfur, phosphate or citrate 3) free Regulation of calcium concentrations
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Fig. 11-3, p. 434
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