3_IronNiedFall2011 - Iron Nutritional iron deficiency is...

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Iron Nutritional iron deficiency is estimated to affect 1.5–2 billion people worldwide.
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The numbers Iron deficiency Most common micronutrient deficiency in the world Anemia 1.5 – 2 billion women, children and men are classified as anemic (?) 42% of pregnant women 47% of preschool children
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Main functions of Iron Oxygen transport Co-factor of many enzymes Immunity
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Hemoglobin in blood binds iron
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Iron Food Sources Iron Food Sources
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Iron Iron Absorption-inhibiting factors Phytates Vegetable proteins Calcium Polyphenols
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Part of hemoglobin (Hgb) protein 80% of iron in body is found in hemoglobin Hgb is a component of Red Blood Cells Carries oxygen in RBC Part of myoglobin protein in muscle Accepts oxygen from hemoglobin and stores and releases oxygen to the muscle for metabolism Oxygen Transport Iron Functions
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Non Oxygen Transport Iron Functions Cofactor for many enzymes Carbohydrate metabolism Electron transport chain (energy / O) Synthesis of collagen Connective tissue, bone matrix (growth and wound healing) Synthesis of Neurotransmitters Dopamine, nor- and epinephrine, serotonin (brain fxn and development)
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Forms of Iron in Food Heme From animal tissue Higher absorption rate (~15%) Non-Heme From plant products Also found in animal tissue Lower absorption rate (~3-8%)
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Factors Contributing to Increased Absorption of Non-Heme Iron Increased body need Low stores Special circumstances Pregnancy Growth MFP Protein in meat, fish, and poultry Vitamin C Acids HCl from stomach
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Factors Inhibiting Absorption of Non-Heme Iron Phytates (grains) Oxalates (vegetables) Fibers Polyphenols Tea (tannins) Coffee Excess minerals (supplements) Calcium Magnesium Zinc
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Generalities about Diets in Developing Countries Often low in Iron Food shortages When food is available Little meat Staple foods like corn are low in iron Some foods contain phytates or oxalates Also low in Vitamin A Maybe low in Folate and B 12
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Iron in Selected Foods Iron in Selected Foods
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The players Ferritin – protein that serves as storage form of iron Transferrin – protein that serves as transport form of iron Bone marrow – site of Red Blood Cell (RBC) production
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Iron Iron Absorption Body conserves iron Balance maintained primarily through absorption Ferritin Iron-storage Transferrin Iron transport protein
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If the body does not need iron Iron is not absorbed and is excreted in shed intestinal cells instead. Thus, iron absorption is reduced when the body does not need iron. If the body
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This note was uploaded on 11/25/2011 for the course NTR 321 taught by Professor Niederreither during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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3_IronNiedFall2011 - Iron Nutritional iron deficiency is...

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