6_ImmuneSystemZincHIVNied2011

6_ImmuneSystemZincHIVNied2011 - The Nobel Prize in...

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011 was divided, one half jointly to Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate
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Poor nutrition weakens the immune system
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Immune response basics:
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The Immune System § Body’s first line of defense § Skin, mucous membranes, GI tract (gut) § Keep “invaders” out!!
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§ 2 types of white blood cells Phagocytes & Lymphocytes § Phagocytes § Scavengers of immune system § First to arrive at the scene of an invader § Phagocytosis § Engulf and digest antigen/bacteria § Secrete cytokines activators of immune response § Macrophages eat LDL in plaques Phagocytosis
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The Immune System § § Lymphocytes – B-cells § Rapidly divide and produce antibodies § Travel through bloodstream to site of infection § Stick to surfaces of antigens § Make it easy for phagocytes to ingest § Antibodies react selectively § Retain a memory-(why vaccinations are effective)
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Adaptive  Immune System § Antigens are how the body recognizes invaders § Bacteria, viruses, toxins are seen as antigens
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B cells respond rapidly to infection, secreting antibodies , & have memory
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Lymphocytes: B-cells - Produce antibodies that react selectively,. - Retain memory to react faster with the same antig -Resistance to infection. -made in b one marrow
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Vaccination induces B cell memory B cells that have seen this invader before & can respond more rapidly
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Estimated Global Annual Vaccine Preventable Disease (VPD) Deaths Averted and Still Occurring among Children <5 Years 2004 1,250,000
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DTP=diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis
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Why Children Are Unvaccinated or Undervaccinated Unvaccinated Undervaccinated 12% 6% 44% 28% 7%
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* *
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The Immune System § Lymphocytes – T-cells § Travel directly to invasion site § Recognize antigens on surface of phagocyte cells § T-cells multiply in response § Release chemicals to destroy antigen called cytokines § Highly specific
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innat e adaptive
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T–cells are part of the cellular immune response T-cell response involves cytotoxic T-lymphocytes & release of cytokines
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Release powerful chemicals to destroy foreign particles. Highly specific, attacking only one antigen. Defend against fungi, viruses, parasites, Participate in the rejection of transplanted tissue.
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This note was uploaded on 11/25/2011 for the course NTR 321 taught by Professor Niederreither during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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6_ImmuneSystemZincHIVNied2011 - The Nobel Prize in...

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