8_VulPopulMalariaNied2011

8_VulPopulMalariaNied2011 - Vulnerable Populations Infants,...

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Unformatted text preview: Vulnerable Populations Infants, children, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly Special Groups Infants Children Pregnant women Elderly What do they have in common? Definitions Growth- in the size and/or number of cells Hyperplasia growth through cell number Hypertrophy growth through cell size Development- in complexity or specialization of structure or function Cell Growth Critical period is a time of cell division or hyperplasia; it varies for each organ and tissue Underfeeding permanent in number of cells Overfeeding permanent in number of cells Pregnancy and Lactation Poor diets associated with reproductive difficulties Chronic under nutrition vs acute under nutrition Starvation Growth Development Pregnancy and Lactation Increase needs Energy Protein Vitamins Minerals Energy - Pregnancy Ideally Increase intake Decrease activity Shortage of energy before pregnancy Women who were LBW infants have increased chance of delivering child with LBW Shortage of energy during pregnancy LBW child Increase approx 300 kcal/day LBW Infants Inadequate Energy and Protein lead to LBW Infants with LBW: Higher mortality and morbidity rates Limited nutrient reserves Increased nutrient needs Immature GI tract Protein - Pregnancy Shortage of protein during pregnancy Reduced number of cells in organs critical periods Irreversible Diabetes? Increase approx 25 grams/day Energy - Lactation Shortage of energy during pregnancy and/or lactation Reduced production of breastmilk Composition of protein and CHO relatively unchanged Composition of lipid reflects dietary intake Composition of vitamins and minerals Increase approx 330-400 kcals/day Protein - Lactation Shortage of protein during pregnancy Reduced production of breastmilk Composition of protein and CHO relatively unchanged Increase approx 15 grams protein/day for 6 months 12 grams pro/day thereafter Kcals and Protein When a diet is low in kcal and/or protein it is likely to be deficient in other nutrients Vitamins & Minerals Nutrient Problems / Pregnancy Nutrient in Breast Milk Vitamin A Anemia / immune fxn Reflects maternal status Folate Neural Tube Defect Constant except in cases...
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8_VulPopulMalariaNied2011 - Vulnerable Populations Infants,...

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