8_VulPopulMalariaNied2011

8_VulPopulMalariaNied2011 - Vulnerable Populations Infants...

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Unformatted text preview: Vulnerable Populations Infants, children, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly Special Groups • Infants • Children • Pregnant women • Elderly • What do they have in common? Definitions • Growth- ⇑ in the size and/or number of cells – Hyperplasia – growth through ⇑ cell number – Hypertrophy – growth through ⇑ cell size • Development- ⇑ in complexity or specialization of structure or function Cell Growth • Critical period is a time of cell division or hyperplasia; it varies for each organ and tissue • Underfeeding – permanent ⇓ in number of cells • Overfeeding – permanent ⇑ in number of cells Pregnancy and Lactation • Poor diets associated with reproductive difficulties • Chronic under nutrition vs acute under nutrition • Starvation – Growth – Development Pregnancy and Lactation • Increase needs • Energy • Protein • Vitamins • Minerals Energy - Pregnancy • Ideally – Increase intake – Decrease activity • Shortage of energy before pregnancy – Women who were LBW infants have increased chance of delivering child with LBW • Shortage of energy during pregnancy – LBW child Increase approx 300 kcal/day LBW Infants • Inadequate Energy and Protein lead to LBW • Infants with LBW: – Higher mortality and morbidity rates – Limited nutrient reserves – Increased nutrient needs – Immature GI tract Protein - Pregnancy • Shortage of protein during pregnancy – Reduced number of cells in organs • critical periods – Irreversible – Diabetes? Increase approx 25 grams/day Energy - Lactation • Shortage of energy during pregnancy and/or lactation – Reduced production of breastmilk • Composition of protein and CHO relatively unchanged • Composition of lipid reflects dietary intake • Composition of vitamins and minerals Increase approx 330-400 kcals/day Protein - Lactation • Shortage of protein during pregnancy – Reduced production of breastmilk • Composition of protein and CHO relatively unchanged Increase approx 15 grams protein/day for 6 months 12 grams pro/day thereafter Kcals and Protein • When a diet is low in kcal and/or protein it is likely to be deficient in other nutrients Vitamins & Minerals Nutrient Problems / Pregnancy Nutrient in Breast Milk Vitamin A Anemia / immune fxn Reflects maternal status Folate Neural Tube Defect Constant except in cases...
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8_VulPopulMalariaNied2011 - Vulnerable Populations Infants...

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