12_HIV_NiedFall2011 - HIV http:/youtu.be/axwNyWNbFb4 full...

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HIV http://youtu.be/axwNyWNbFb4 full science of HIV http://uctv.canterbury.ac.nz/modules/ journal/entry.php? _key=1116&journal_user_key=0 History of HIV –patient 0
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DR. S.K CHATURVEDI Lesson objectives Understand the global and local impact of the epidemic Know about HIV/AIDS in adults, children, and families Understand the natural history of HIV infection Understand the modes of HIV transmission Scope of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic Natural History and Transmission of HIV
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HIV H uman I mmunodeficiency V irus H = Infects only H uman beings I = I mmunodeficiency virus weakens the immune system and increases the risk of infection V = V irus that attacks the body
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AIDS A cquired I mmune D eficiency S yndrome A = A cquired, not inherited I = Weakens the I mmune system D = Creates a D eficiency of CD4+ cells in the immune system S = S yndrome, or a group of illnesses taking place at the same time
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DR. S.K CHATURVEDI HIV and AIDS When the immune system becomes weakened by HIV, the illness progresses to AIDS Some blood tests, symptoms or certain infections indicate progression of HIV to AIDS
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HIV – a Virus • Glycoprotein that attaches with gp 120 to CD4 receptor • Inside cell RNA transcribed to DNA by RT • DNA incorporated into cell genome • DNA is copied and translated to viral enzymes, proteases • New infectious virus buds from host cell to repeat process
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• AIDS is now second only to the Black Death as the largest epidemic in history. • UNAIDS estimate 25 million people have been killed by it since its recognition in 1981 • AIDS kills over 2 million people a year, or about one person every 15 seconds. • This death toll surprisingly includes a lot of children, who are often infected with the HIV virus during pregnancy or through breast-feeding. Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), World Health Organization (WHO) AIDS as a modern plague
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AIDS as a modern plague • Slightly over 0.6% of the world is infected • The toll is worst in Africa, where millions of parents have died, leaving children as orphans. Often teachers have died as well, leaving schools empty. • Doctors and nurses have died, leaving hospitals and medical clinics with nothing. • Farmers have died, leaving crops in the fields. Entire villages have been devastated. Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), World Health Organization (WHO)
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HIV in humans • HIV-1 was the original HIV discovered, and is global and more transmissible than HIV-2, which is supposed to be restricted to West Africa • HIV-2 transmits from mother to child at a lower rate than HIV-1 • Recent research suggests that circumcision of males may reduce transmissibility of HIV – First study in 1995 on truckers in Kenya – Next study more comprehensive, involved WHO data Williams BG, Lloyd-Smith JO, Gouws E, Hankins C, Getz WM, et al (2006) The potential impact of male circumcision on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS Med 3: e262.
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DR. S.K CHATURVEDI
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12_HIV_NiedFall2011 - HIV http:/youtu.be/axwNyWNbFb4 full...

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