14_NiedDietHealthLongevity2011 - The scale of the ...

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Unformatted text preview: The scale of the problem we face is clear with the projected number of deaths a6ributable to chronic diseases rising from 4 million in 1990 (40% of all deaths) to an expected 7.6 million in 2020 (67% of all deaths). Chronic Diseases §༊  Chronic diseases—such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes—are the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. Chronic diseases account for 70% of all deaths in the U.S & 80% of deaths in developing world §༊  Four modifiable health risk behaviors—lack of physical acEvity, poor nutriEon, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumpEon—are responsible for much of the illness, suffering, and early death related to chronic diseases. Ten Leading Causes of Death in the U.S. Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, & cancer accounts for most deaths in all regions of the world except South Asia and sub- Saharan Africa. While infecEous diseases, lack of nutriEon, and other tradiEonal killers are claiming fewer lives in developing countries, deaths aLributable to chronic diseases are rising. USA 2009 StaEsEcs (CDC) •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Heart disease: 616,067 Cancer: 562,875 Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases): 135,952 Chronic respiratory diseases:127,924 Accidents : 123,706 Alzheimer's disease: 74,632 Diabetes: 71,382 •  Worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980. •  In 2008, 1.5 billion adults, 20 and older, were overweight. •  200 million men & 300 million women were obese. •  65% of the world's populaEon live in countries where overweight and obesity kills more people than underweight. •  Nearly 43 million children under the age of five were overweight in 2010. •  Obesity is preventable. Other chronic disease contributors: •  1 billion+ smoke •  Tobacco kills up to half of its users •  Nearly 80% of the more than one billion smokers worldwide live in low- and middle- income countries, where the burden of tobacco- related illness and death is heaviest. Cardiovascular Disease: Causes 2/3 of Deaths Worldwide Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): Over 80% of CVD deaths take place in low/ middle-income countries. •  Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the U.S. & is an increasing health burden worldwide •  This is because globally acNvity is reduced •  It is easier to get processed food- someNmes cheaper & more accessible than healthy food •  More women working=> less Nme for buying & preparing food •  Risk factors for heart disease - smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity are increasing worldwide. •  Risk factors - lack of exercise, an unhealthy diet, stress, and a "type A" personality & geneNcs •  Key messages to protect heart health •  Tobacco use, an unhealthy diet, and physical inacEvity increase the risk of heart aLacks and strokes. •  physical acEvity for 30+ minutes every day helps prevent heart aLacks and strokes. •  five+ servings of fruit and vegetables a day, and limiEng salt intake to 2400 mg/day Understanding heart funcNon in chronic diseases •  Heart funcNon pumping and circulaNng 5 or 6 gallons of blood each minute is essenNal for life •  Heart muscle cells must funcNon over a lifeNme Heart disease explanaNon h6p://youtu.be/_wre2WRPiFI •  Heart disease begins when cholesterol, fa6y material, and calcium build up in the arteries, a process known as atherosclerosis. •  Blockage of the coronary arteries by plaque may cause a heart a6ack (myocardial infarcNon) or a fatal rhythm disturbance (sudden cardiac arrest). Q: What is a plaque & how does it form? A: AtheroscleroNc plaque is a mass that builds inside artery walls and leads to inflammaNon. •  Inflammatory cells lining the blood vessels incur damage. •  Inflammatory response using macrophages that become the cells of plaque. •  Blood clots form and minerals harden the plaque. •  Fibrous connecEve Essue encase the plaque. •  Fibrous coaEng can be torn away with a surge in blood pressure. hLp://youtu.be/VTzxaUb- xb0 *** AtheroscleroNc plaque most like to cause a heart aLack A.  Forms inside the aorta occluding blood flow B.  Forms within the walls of arteries C.  Is inflamed, filled with macrophages & cholesterol, and covered by a thin smooth muscle lining D.  A & B E.  B & C hLp://youtu.be/JtFV1EGI3B4 ** How a heart aLach occurs & what to do •  A frequent & devastaNng consequences of heart disease can be sudden cardiac arrest. •  This is due to a clogged/blocked coronary artery •  Besides chest pain (angina) and shortness of breath, common symptoms of heart disease include jaw pain, back pain, and heart palpitaNons. Heart A6acks and Strokes •  Angina – pain or pressure feeling around the area of the heart (a symptom). •  Broken- off blood clots also cause stroke •  Platelets cover the damaged area and form a clot. •  Thrombosis is the formaEon of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstrucEng the flow of blood through the circulatory system. Thrombosis •  Embolism is when a blood clot breaks free, travels, and lodges in a small artery and shuts off blood flow to Essues. •  Platelets are under the control of eicosanoids, made from omega- 3 and omega- 6 faLy acids Heart A6acks and Strokes •  Transient ischemic a6ack or stroke – restricted blood flow to the brain. •  Plaques can break off & cause stroke •  High blood pressure increases this risk •  Tests to detect & treat heart disease or non commonly available in poor countries=> increased lethality •  TesNng by the electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). PreventaEve coronary heart disease •  C- reacNve protein (CRP) is a sign of inflammaEon of the artery walls. Another new blood tests for CHD Lipoprotein- associated phospholipase is an inflammatory marker that appears to be specific for plaque inflammaEon. •  Invasive procedures are used to help treat heart disease balloon catheter. •  PrevenNon is the best means of reducing the chances of developing heart disease •  Exercise, controlling high blood pressure and diabetes, and taking daily aspirin. •  Is this a priority among poor & habits in children???? •  Omega- 3 fa6y acids lowers the risk of heart disease and may also protect against depression, demenNa, cancer, & arthriNs reducing LDL & increasing HDL •  Are these readily available worldwide. •  Omega- 3 fa6y acids:. •  DHA and EPA, (fish) have strongest health benefits. •  ALA is another omega-3 found in vegetable oils, flaxseed, walnuts, and dark leafy vegetables such as spinach. •  Omega- 3 fa6y acids reduce inflammaNon in the blood vessels, joints, and elsewhere. •  They also decrease the risk for an abnormal heart rhythm, reduce levels of unhealthy fats in the bloodstream, therefore slowing the rate of plaque build- up in the blood vessels. Inflammation=Immune system response to infection or injury Chronic Inflammation is Harmful & Contributes to Chronic Diseases •  Most of the Eme, inflammaEon is a lifesaver that enables our bodies to fend off various disease- causing bacteria, viruses and parasites. •  The instant any of these potenEally deadly microbes slips into the body, inflammaEon marshals a defensive aLack •  SomeEmes the whole feverish producEon doesn't shut down on cue. •  SomeEmes the problem is a geneEc predisposiEon; smoking or high blood pressure keeps the process going. InflammaEon becomes dangerous!!!! •  chronic inflammaNon does harm to the body. •  It destabilizes cholesterol deposits in the coronary arteries, leading to heart aLacks & strokes. •  It chews up nerve cells in the brains of Alzheimer's vicEms. •  It may even foster the proliferaEon of abnormal cells and facilitate their transformaEon into cancer. •  Chronic inflammaEon may be the engine that drives many of the most feared illnesses of middle and old age. High blood pressure, affects 1 of 3 adults, increases risk of heart disease & stroke. Exercise & healthy diet help to prevent high blood pressure. •  Exercise also boosts the effecNveness of blood pressure medicaNon. •  •  •  •  •  Excessive Salt consumpNon is a risk in “transiNonal economies” •  limiNng sodium 2,400 milligrams/day is difficult with limited financial resources •  Avoid processed meats(a means of preservaNon with no electricity) •  Avoid canned foods. •  Doing acNviNes to reduce your blood pressure, such as exercising 30 to 60 minutes a day, can reduce your stress level. Q. What is ???? •  Stress ReducNon 101 •  Simplify your schedule. Look for acEviEes that aren't very important to you. Schedule less Eme for these acEviEes, or eliminate them completely. •  Breathe to relax - a conscious effort to deepen and slow down your breathing •  Exercise. Also lowers your systolic BP •  Try yoga and meditaNon. •  Get plenty of sleep. •  Ship your perspecNve. When dealing with problems, resist the tendency to complain. How to live better & longer: http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQrkioHOJLs 1. Maintain a healthy weight 2. Exercise 3. Reduce inflammation 4. Stay active mentally 5. Get adequate sleep 6. Manage stress (relax, reflect, accept) 7. Cultivate positive emotions 8. Stay connected 9. Engage in activities that are meaningful to you 10. Connect with something beyond you Get enough Vitamin D see hLp://youtu.be/Cq1t9WqOD- 0 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/25/2011 for the course NTR 321 taught by Professor Niederreither during the Spring '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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