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ch01 - blu03683_ch01.qxd 05:18 PM Page 1 CHAPTE R 1 The...

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1–1 Objectives After completing this chapter, you should be able to 1 Demonstrate knowledge of statistical terms. 2 Differentiate between the two branches of statistics. 3 Identify types of data. 4 Identify the measurement level for each variable. 5 Identify the four basic sampling techniques. 6 Explain the difference between an observational and an experimental study. 7 Explain how statistics can be used and misused. 8 Explain the importance of computers and calculators in statistics. Outline 1–1 Introduction 1–2 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 1–3 Variables and Types of Data 1–4 Data Collection and Sampling Techniques 1–5 Observational and Experimental Studies 1–6 Uses and Misuses of Statistics 1–7 Computers and Calculators 1–8 Summary 1 1 The Nature of Probability and Statistics C H A P T E R
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Are We Improving Our Diet? It has been determined that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases such as cancer. Nutritionists recommend that Americans consume five or more servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Several researchers from the Division of Nutrition, the National Center for Chronic Disease Control and Prevention, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institutes of Health decided to use statis- tical procedures to see how much progress is being made toward this goal. The procedures they used and the results of the study will be explained in this chapter. See Statistics Today—Revisited at the end of this chapter. 2 Chapter 1 The Nature of Probability and Statistics 1–2 Statistics Today 1–1 Introduction Most people become familiar with probability and statistics through radio, televi- sion, newspapers, and magazines. For example, the following statements were found in newspapers. Nearly one in seven U.S. families are struggling with bills from medical expenses even though they have health insurance. Source: Psychology Today, October 2004. Eating 10 grams (g) of fiber a day reduces the risk of heart attack by 14%. Source: Archives of Internal Medicine, Reader’s Digest, May 2004. Thirty minutes (of exercise) two or three times each week can raise HDLs 10 to 15%. Source: Prevention, July 2004. The average credit card debt per household in 2003 was $9205. Source: www.cardweb.com. About 15% of men in the United States are left-handed and 9% of women are left-handed. Source: Scripps Survey Research Center. The median age of couples who watch Jay Leno is 48.1 years. Source: Nielsen Media Research 2003–2004. U nusual Stats Of people in the United States, 14% said that they feel happiest in June, and 14% said that they feel happiest in December.
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Statistics is used in almost all fields of human endeavor. In sports, for example, a sta- tistician may keep records of the number of yards a running back gains during a football game, or the number of hits a baseball player gets in a season. In other areas, such as pub- lic health, an administrator might be concerned with the number of residents who con- tract a new strain of flu virus during a certain year. In education, a researcher might want
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