Exam_3_Study_Guide_Spr_2010

Exam_3_Study_Guide_Spr_2010 - Study Guide for Exam 3...

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Study Guide for Exam 3 BIOL-003 Spring 2010 Glycolysis and Fermentation 1. Review the structure of ATP. What other phosphorylated compounds are involved in energy metabolism? 2. Review the conditions that trigger anaerobic ATP synthesis vs. aerobic ATP synthesis. Review the types of cellular work in the cell. 3. Outline the chemical steps of glycolysis, beginning with glucose and ending with pyruvate. What role do coenzymes such as NAD+ play in the process? How much ATP is generated by glycolysis? 4. Briefly explain why fermentation is necessary in the absence of oxygen. What are the types of fermentation and what are their products? 5. Briefly explain how other carbohydrates—such as fructose, sucrose, or polysaccharides—are metabolized by glycolysis. 6. Briefly compare the reactions in glycolysis with the reactions of gluconeogenesis. How are they similar? How are they different? 7. Review the concept of allosteric regulation of enzyme activity. What are the key regulatory steps in glycolysis? In gluconeogenesis? Aerobic Respiration 1. Review the structure and general function of the mitochondrion. How are prokaryotic cells able to perform mitochondrial functions without mitochondria? 2. Briefly explain how pyruvate enters the TCA cycle. What are the resulting products? 3. Outline the chemical reactions involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. How much ATP is produced? What roles do coenzymes such as FAD and NAD+ play in the cycle? 4. Briefly explain how fats and proteins can be used to generate ATP by the TCA cycle. 5. Briefly explain how TCA cycle intermediates can be used to generate carbohydrates or amino acids. 6. Name the major components of the respiratory complexes of the electron transport system. Diagram or describe the flow of electrons through the electron transport chain. What is the final electron acceptor? 7.
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Exam_3_Study_Guide_Spr_2010 - Study Guide for Exam 3...

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