Exam_4_Study_Guide_Spr_2010

Exam_4_Study_Guide_Spr_2010 - Study Guide for Exam 4...

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Study Guide for Exam 4 BIOL-003 Spring 2010 Signal Transduction Mechanisms I: Electrical Signals in Nerve Cells 1. Review the organization of the vertebrate nervous system. How do neurons differ from glial cells? 2. Review the structure of a typical motor neuron. 3. Briefly describe the conditions that create membrane potential. What is resting membrane potential? 4. What is the Nernst equation and what does it tell us about membrane potential? How does the Goldman equation compare to the Nernst equation? 5. Briefly describe the events that cause changes of membrane potential during an action potential, starting with the resting state and ending with a return to the resting state. 6. Briefly describe how the myelin sheath results in increasing the propagation speed of an action potential. 7. Compare and contrast the transmission of an action potential from a neuron to another cell by an electrical synapse versus a chemical synapse. Signal Transduction Mechanisms II: Messengers & Receptors 1. Outline the sequence of events involved in signal transduction. 2. Briefly describe the roles of G proteins, cyclic AMP, and calcium in signal transduction. What effects can result from an increase in cAMP? What effects can result from an increase in Ca ++ concentration? 3. Briefly describe the role of receptor tyrosine kinases in signal transduction. What effects can autophosphorylation trigger?
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