Ch_6_Enzymes - Enzymes Biol-003 A. Introduction 1. Many...

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Enzymes Biol-003 Spring 2010 1 A. Introduction 1. Many biological reactions have ∆G > 0 under cellular conditions ( unfavorable) a. Drive reactions in favorable direction by coupling with other reactions that have ∆G < 1 (so net ∆G is negative) b. Enzymes responsible for carrying out coupled reactions in coordinated manner c. In cells, many unfavorable reactions coupled to oxidation of ATP ATP + P i a. Significance of bond energy b. Visible light vs. ultraviolet light 2. Activation Energy (E A ) a. E A = minimum amount of energy needed for reactants products b. Most biologically important molecules have high E A so equilibrium is never reached c. Catalysts needed to overcome E A barrier o Increase rate of reaction o Form temporary complexes with substrates o Have no effect on position of equilibrium d. Enzymes = biological catalysts that lower E A B. Characteristics of Enzymes 1. Most enzymes are proteins; some are ribozymes 2. Active site of enzyme specific to substrates; may contain prosthetic groups 3. Great diversity—essentially one enzyme for each chemical reaction 4. Temperature sensitivity—every enzyme has optimum temperature range
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Ch_6_Enzymes - Enzymes Biol-003 A. Introduction 1. Many...

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