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Psychology notes chapter 10 intelligence

Psychology notes chapter 10 intelligence - Psychology notes...

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Psychology notes – Chapter 1- Intelligence - Intelligence is a socially constructed concept - Can be viewed as the ability to respond adaptively to the demands of a particular environment. - Intelligence- The ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively and to deal adaptively with the environment. - Foundation of study of mental skills: - Sir Francis Galton: Charles Darwins cousin, he was convinced that people who were more intelligent has inherited mental constitutions. He thought intelligence was biologically based and he tested the efficiency of the nervous system of people who were more intelligent thinking that they would have a more efficient nervous system, although this was not the case. He believed skull size reflected brain volume. - Alfred Binet: Studied intelligence to solve practical problem of determining specific children who did not benifit from the education system at an early age so accommodations could be made. He believed that intelligence increases with age, and if you are lagging at one age you will be lagging another age as well. He looked into what problems children could do at certain ages, developed a test, and the assigned each child a mental age. - Sterns Intelligence quotient (IQ): ratio of metal age/chronic age multiplied by 100 – Lewis Terman revised to get Stanford-binet IQ Approaches in the study of intelligence: Psychometric – attempts to map the structure of intellect and the kind of mental competencies that underlie test performance Psychometrics is the statistical study of psychological tests. - Factor Analysis: reduces large number of correlation taken through many measures into groups of correlations. - G-Factor- intelligence as a general mental capacity- Charles Spearman- Intelligence is determined by a g-factor, general intelligence. The grade is math and, say, English, are usually positively correlated with each other even though the skills required are different. - Thrustone: Challenged g-factor. Some of the correlation between different test were far from perfect, but certain test were clustered together. Came up with primary metal abilities: S- space – reasoning about visual scenes , V-verbal- understanding verbal statements, W- word-comprehension – producing verbal statements, N- number facility- dealing with numbers, P- Perceptual speed- recognizing visual patterns , M- Rote memory – memorizing, R- Reasoning – dealing with novel problems - Catell and John Horn: Split general intelligence into crystallized intelligence – ability
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