ANAT 2626 Head and Neck PowerPoint Review

ANAT 2626 Head and Neck PowerPoint Review - Head and Neck I...

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Unformatted text preview: Head and Neck I David L. McWhorter, Ph.D. Skull Osteology David L. McWhorter, Ph.D. Head Introduction • Superior part of the body that is attached to the trunk by the neck • Houses the brain and its protective coverings • Includes: – special sensory receivers (eyes, ears, mouth, and nose) – devices for voice and expression – portals for intake of fuel (food), water, and oxygen and exhaust of carbon dioxide Head Injuries • Are a major cause of death and disability • Complications of head injuries include hemorrhage, infection, and injury to the brain and cranial nerves • Disturbance in the level of consciousness (LOC) is the most common symptom of head injury • Almost 100% of all deaths in the United States are caused by head injuries, and approximately half of traumatic deaths involve the brain • Head injuries occur mostly in young persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years • The major cause of brain injury varies but motor vehicle and motorcycle accidents are prominent • Men are affected three to four times as often as women Headaches and Facial Pain • Few complaints are more common than headaches and facial pain • Although usually benign and frequently associated with tension, fatigue, or mild fever, headaches may indicate a serious intracranial problem such as a brain tumor, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or meningitis • Neuralgias (G. algos, pain) are characterized by severe throbbing or stabbing pain in the course of a nerve caused by a demyelinating lesion – common cause of facial pain • Terms such as facial neuralgia describe diffuse painful sensations • Localized aches have specific names, such as earache (otalgia) and toothache (odontalgia) • A sound knowledge of the anatomy of the head helps in understanding the causes of headaches and facial pain Cranium (Skull) • Skeleton of the head • A series of bones form its two parts 1. Neurocranium 2. Viscerocranium Neurocranium (Cranial Vault) • Bony covering (case) of the brain and its membranous coverings (cranial meninges) • Contains proximal parts of the cranial nerves and the vasculature of the brain • Has a dome-like roof, the calvaria (skullcap), and a floor or cranial base (basicranium) • Formed by a series of eight bones : – four singular bones centered on the midline ( frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, and occipital ) – two sets of bones occurring as bilateral pairs ( temporal and parietal ) Calvaria (Skullcap; Dome-like Roof) • Bones forming the calvaria are primarily flat bones ( frontal, temporal, and parietal ) formed by intramembranous ossification of head mesenchyme from the neural crest • Bones contributing to the cranial base are primarily irregular bones with substantial flat portions ( sphenoidal and temporal ) formed by endochondral ossification of cartilage (chondrocranium) or from more than one type of ossification • Ethmoid bone is an irregular bone that makes a relatively minor midline contribution to neurocranium but is primarily part of the viscerocranium...
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course ANAT 2626 taught by Professor Ronaldg.mayne during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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ANAT 2626 Head and Neck PowerPoint Review - Head and Neck I...

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