RSCH 2501 Week 1 Class Notes & Definitions

RSCH 2501 Week 1 Class Notes & Definitions - RSCH...

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version 7-13-2O1O s e c t i o n 1 4 “Ways oF Knowing” Claims, Evidence, Warrants, Backing, Qualifcations, and Concessions _________________________________________________________ ± o u r W a y s o F K n o w i n g (from mathematician/philosopher Charles Peirce, 1839-1914): Tenacity: (knowledge unquestioned ,‘traditional') Intuition: (knowledge is obvious, ‘common sense') Authority: (source is authority Fgure ,'expert' Science: (inquisitive approach to “knowledge”) They all have strengths, or at least have usefulness, in the ways you learn and understand, but they all have some p i t f a l l s : T e n a c i t y : We believe certain things according to how we have been taught that have “always been that way”. The g o o d s i d e of this: traditional beliefs or practices inherited from our families, cultures, or religions The b a d s i d e : clinging to certain beliefs despite the lack of supporting evidence. Repetition of such beliefs seems to enhance their supposed validity. Superstition Racism and other forms of bigotry largely involve tenacious beliefs in certain stereotypes. I n t u i t i o n : obvious, common sense, or clearly self-evident (the word “intuition” seems to be used differently today than in Peirce’s time) : The g o o d s i d e : people need common sense, need to be able to think logically. The b a d s i d e : there are things once believed to be true because they seemed so obviously so: The earth is ±at The sun revolves around the earth A mile can’t be run in less than 4 minutes Women are too fragile to run more than half a mile No one other than a medical doctor can accurately take a blood pressure measurement A u t h o r i t y : i.e., if an authority Fgure says so therefore it must be true. The g o o d s i d e : we are all dependent on the guidance of authority Fgures – parents, teachers, employers, religious leaders, etc. – and depend upon them because they have experience, wisdom, or specialized knowledge. The b
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RSCH 2501 Week 1 Class Notes & Definitions - RSCH...

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