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Unformatted text preview: RSCH 2501: review outline for week 5 mid-term exam, FALL 2O1O see both supplied notes and PowerPoint slides Aspects of research Definitions of science and research o Science : the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation and theoretical explanation of phenomena. o Research : systematic investigation designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge . Attributes to the scientific approach: o systematic empiricism, public knowledge, solvable problems what do these mean? o systematic empiricism : we rely on observation and following certain rules in research to ensure reliability and validity of observations . o public knowledge : if you dont make your findings public, you are not doing science. Aspects of public knowledge: a. replications-others should be able to get the same results with the same methods. b. should be subjected to peer review (standard in publications) o solvable problems: some questions can not be answered through systematic investigation, for some others we do not have the technology . Research: Logical: Procedures make sense, researchers can provide a rationale for investigation. Systematic: -identification of variables.-appropriate research design to test relationship between the variables.- collection of data.- evaluation of hypotheses. Replicable: the procedures are recorded and reported, other people can repeat the research and find similar results or build upon the work to take it further. Empirical : Data is collected for the basis of decision-making. Peirces four ways of knowing: tenacity, intuition, authority, scientific empiricism Tenacity: knowledge unquestioned, traditional 1 Clinging to certain beliefs despite the lack of supporting evidence, ex. Superstitions, racism and other forms of bigotry largely involve tenacious beliefs in certain stereotypes . Intuition : knowledge is obvious, common sense' There are things once believed to be true because they were obvious, common sense, or clearly self-evident. Ex. The world is flat. Authority : source is authority figure, 'expert' If an authority figure says so it must be true. scientific empiricism : inquisitive approach to knowledge empiricism (investigation & evaluation) the scientific approach is based on empiricism, gathering knowledge through experience and observation....
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- Winter '11