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RADD 2501 Lab Practical Review - 1 2 3 4 5 X-Ray Physics...

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Unformatted text preview: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) X-Ray Physics Lab Final All factors are constants for radiography density, which film use more mA and why? a) Darkest b) “More mA is current 0) More current heat the filaments, filament gets hotter (:1) More electrons boil off e) More x-rays are produced f) Therefore more radiography density and darker is the film All factors are constants for radiography density, which film has the longest'exposure of time and why? a) The darkest b) Filaments have more time to get hot c) Therefore more current flow and more time for e— to d) Therefore more electrons boll off e) Therefore produce more x—rays f) Therefore more radiography density and darker is the film. All factors are constants for radiography density, which film has the more mAs and why? a) mAs is the total amount of current and time to flow, therefore b) More current flow c) More e- boil off d) More x—rays are produced e) Therefore more radiography density, the darker is the film. Which film show more linearity? a) Linearity is the ability to manipulate mA and Time to get the same mAs and gets the same results. (All of them has the same mAs and they look the same) All factors are constants for radiography density, which film has the more kV and why? a) The darkest b) Higher kV, the higher the kinetic energy of the x—rays c) More x-rays reach the film, the darkest the film. 6) 7) o8) 9) 10) All factors are constants for radiography density, in terms of density, which film has the longest SID and why? a) The sharper or the underexposed (density terminology you use overegposed for loss SID, where the film will bemore blurred and larg‘é'rTWhile or a underexposedllongest SID, the film will be mote sharper and normal size) ”HTT— b) ShapW 0) Because perpendicular rays are producing the image d) And due to divergence, less x-rays reached the film (underexposed) Which side is the anode side? Why — densitylsharpness? a) Top b) The sharper side is due to the perpendicular rays. 0) Less density is due to the e- are absorbed by the Tungsten , high atomic number target. kVpImAs contrast relationship? Which film has the lower kVp and why? a) The more brighter b) Short scale = high contrast — more black and white (long scale=low contrast, more grays) 0) Low variety of energy x-rays produce fewer varieties of contrast. In terms of geometric relationship, which film has the longest SID and why? a) The sharper or the normal size (smaller shape image) b) Because is the perpendicular x-ray produce the image In terms of OlDlgeometric relationship, which film has longest OID and why? a) The larger or the blurred b) Because divergent rays produce the image X-Ray Physics Lab Practical Study Sheet *Use at your own risk- do not rely on these notes alonel“ PART 1 : Basie concepts {looking at films) 1 } meldensity relationship: DARKEST image: most density 8:. most mid, because more electrons are boiled ofi and uses the most xrays. [*xray will have 3 images of difierent densities) 2) exposure timetdensity relationship: DARKEST image: most density 8:. most exposure time because there is more time for the current to flow, so more electrons are boiled off and uses the most xrays. [*xray will have 3 images of difiermit densities) 3} nuasfdensity relationship: DARKEST imagc= most density 3:. most mAs heeause ma. X s = the total amount of current, and the most electrons boiled elf and uses the most xrays. {*xray will have 3 images ofdifi'erent densities) 4) exposure linearityfdensity relationship: if images are not all the same, than they are not linear. If the mats is changed and the image stays the same, it would be linear. (*xray will have 3 images of different densities] 3) k‘v’ptdensity relationship: DARICEST image: most density 3: most k‘v'p because of an increase in energy, xrays, and electrons boiled off. {*xray will have 6} Sl'De’density relationship: LIGHEST image: longest SID heeause the beam diverges and some xrays miss the film. (*2 xrays with images of" skulls, probably- one will be lighter, one will be darker) T") anode heel cffeetfdensitya’geometry relationship: anode side: less dense [less dark...alca— lighter!) because more xrays are absorbed on that side and it is sharper became more perpendicular xrays are used. {*xray of a 1vertical, rectangular image— with one end lighter and one and darker} E} kVprumAsfeontrast relationship: DARKEST image: increased k‘v’p and decreased mAs because there are more energy varieties, a longer scale of contrast, higher energy xrays, and less absorption so the bones leek darker. LIGHTEST image: decreased Hip and increased mats because there are Fewer energy varieties, a shorter scale of contrast, lower energy xrays= and more absorption so the bones look brighter and lighter. {*2 xrays with a thoracic spine View, one having brighter bodies and one darker] 9) SlDlgeometty relationship: SMALLER a SHARPER= longest SID because the perpendicular rays are used- (* Exrays of skulls are used, one image is smaller and sharper, one is slightly more large and blurry} l D) lDIDlgeometry relationship: LESS SHARP: longest 01D because divergent rays produce the image. MORE SHARP: shortest DID because perpendicular rays produce the image. 11* 2 arrays of skulls are used, one image is more sharp, one is less sharp} PART 2: A) l5 points: You are given a caliper, technique chart, and mAs chart and will be asked to measure a person for APP, APD, L1), or LL spine. APP: A-P Pelvis, and you will measure from A—P en the fattest part of the belly. APII= A-P Dorsal, and you will measure from the sternum in between the breasts to the spinous processes and into the trap, going diagonally across the shoulder. The moving part of the caliper is in the hack. LI): Lateral Dorsal, and you will measure underneath the axilla with the patient’s anus down, while you are standing behind them. LL= Lateral Lumbar and you will carefiilly find the patient’s ASIS and measure side to side at that level, while you are standing behind them. 3‘ h'LAKE SURE YOU DD NDT TOUCH THE PATIENT INAPPROPRIATELYI“ You will find the proper mAs and k‘v’p (which is usually T3 because that is optimal!) on the technique chart according to the measurement you got from your patient [in crnls} and then on the mAs chart, find the appropriate mA and s depending on whether you were asked to use best detail [254513 S] or stop motion (EDD—4WD . Next, you set up the proper mA, time, and k‘v’p on the console. Finally, you push the exposure switch until the light goes out. E} I5 points: You will be asked to pick a technique manipulation question from the red sparkly hat and set up the proper new technique on the console. Rules you need to know to change your values and set up the new techniques: I- 3ll% rule: it takes a change of at least 30% of the mAs to minimally change density. Direct relationship: increased mAs= increased density, Se vice versa. 2- SID changes to compensate for density: if SID is doubled, multiply mAs by 4 because you only have 56 the original # of xrays at twice the SID. If the SID is halved, you must use it of the original mAs because you now have 4 times the original # of xrays striking the film. Old mAs = Old SIT) squared New mAs New SID squared 3] Collimah‘ng “simficantly”: when oollimaling from a large field to a significantly smaller field (ie: 14 X l? to It} X 12], the scatter density is lost on the film (fog is lost} so WCREASE mass by 50%. 4) System speed: All screens are compared in speed, so when changing screen combos, the m5 will also need to be adjusted. Old speed.Ir New speed X original mate. (is: lflfl speedfrl-[ltl speed X mos] 5) Quality (energy) changes to change the scale of contrast: To produce along {low} scale contrast: increase grays {increase kVp 15% In the part B section under #5 (Quality), please change decrease malts by l5% to multiply mass by 13'2. To produce a short {high} scale contrast: increase blacks 8r. whites {decrease kVp 15% and multiply mAs by 2} C.) It) points— experiment a set up (STD geometry and density), but do not set the console. Things to remember: 1} Proper cassette size= lflXll 2] Proper placement [yellowr side faces in, so you can't see it] 3) Lock the film into place in the bueky tray and push the tray completely into the bucky compartment 4) Proper SID: 4G" 5} Proper Central Ray Angle: perpendicular to the phantom, entering onto the phantom and exiting onto the center of the film (3K4 inch anterior and superior to the external auditory meatus) use the bluefeenter {lflXl 2") middle-marker line that Sandy has placed on all of the bueky trays in every room 6) Proper collimation for film size (film is IGXIE" so eollimate to 9X11") 7") Ability to use locks on equipment properly {you should only need to use the vertical button, moving it up or down, to line up the central ray, and the roll button if the central ray is not exactly perpendicular, which the level on top of the machine will tell you. You can use the horizontal button, moving it forward or backward, if the machine is not set at 412)“ SID already, but if it is, you wont need it. There is a button on the bottom of the bucky to move it up and down, so make sure the bottom of the bucky is just above the moving table which you set your phantom on.) Make sure you hold the button down until you’ve stopped moving the machine completely, otherwise you will hear a not-so-plcasant noise fiom the machine! 8} COMPLETE THE SET UP IN 5 MINUTES OR LESS! YOU CAN DO lTll GOOD LUCK! © ...
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