RADD 2501 X-Ray Tube Design - Generators

RADD 2501 X-Ray Tube Design - Generators - Home - Education...

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Home - Education Resources - Science of NDT - Radiography X-RAY GENERATORS After reading this section you will be able to do the following: Identify the main parts to the basic x-ray generator. List the three things that an X-ray generator must supply in order to produce x-rays. In this section the basic construction of X-ray equipment and some different types of x-ray systems will be introduced. Most standard x-ray systems have three main components which are a x-ray tube, a high voltage power supply, and a control unit. Working together, these components are common to all standard systems. From our introductory discussion on the generation of x-rays you may recall that there were three principle requirements to generate X- radiation. These three requirements include a source of electrons, a means of acceleration, and a target for interaction. You should recognize that electrical power is necessary for X-ray generation. Where do the electrons come from? You already know that matter is made up of atoms, and atoms have electrons that orbit around the nucleus in shells. All we need to do is get the electron free of their orbit. How do we do this? The answer is fairly simple. If we take a piece of conductive wire and pass a current through it, the wire will heat up due to the resistance in the wire. The heat of the
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wire excites the electrons and they will break away (boil off) from the wire to expend the energy picked up from the heat of the current. When the energy of the electron is expended, it will return to the wire to become heated again. So this heated wire serves as our source of electrons. Why do the electrons need to be accelerated and how is it done? Our second requirement is to get the electrons traveling at high speeds. The reason we need to propel the electrons at high speeds is because the energy that the electron possesses and can transfer is dependent on its velocity. The higher the velocity of the electron when it interacts with an atom, the greater the energy of the radiation that will be produced. Propelling the electron is fairly simple. Since unlike charges (positive and negative) attract, and electrons posses a negative charge, all we need is a positive charge nearby to attract the electron. We can accomplish this by placing a piece of metal (anode) a short distance away from the wire filament (cathode). When we apply a voltage to this anode, we place a high positive charge on it. This high positive charge acts much like a magnet, only it is attracting free electrons. The positive charge will possess a strong attractive force to the negative charge of the electrons that are boiling off of the
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filament. This attractive force pulls the electrons towards the anode at high speeds. By increasing the voltage applied to the anode we can increase the speed of the electrons. What does the target material do?
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course RADD 2501 taught by Professor Sandyeverage during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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RADD 2501 X-Ray Tube Design - Generators - Home - Education...

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