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Unformatted text preview: QUIZ
Consider the specific ionization of Alpha particles, Beta particles and
Consider the range in matter of Alpha particles, Beta particles and
Xray due to their specific ionizations
Consider the DNA molecule and its double helix structure. If one
strand is broken, there is the other strand to act as a template for repair.
Ionizing radiation effects are broken into two categories:
Direct Effects – Ionization of DNA molecule
Indirect Effects – Production of free radicals due to the
ionization of the water molecule
1. Relative to Alpha and Beta particles, xrays are __________ likely
to cause a direct effect resulting in a DNA mutation.
A. More likely
B. Less likely
C. Equally Review
Review What is an Xray? Describe electromagnetic energy in terms of Mass Charge Velocity List other types of electromagnetic energies in order of their energies relative to xray. More Review
More Review Define Ionize
Define Ion Pair
Define specific ionization
Which of the types of energies in the electromagnetic spectrum have the ability to ionize?
What makes an xray photon higher energy than a microwave?
State the wave equation Even MORE Review
Even MORE Review What is a gamma ray? What is the difference between gamma rays and xrays? Is a gamma ray always higher energy than an xray? Will you, as a chiropractor, ever use gamma rays in your practice? Where do alpha and beta particles originate? Almost done reviewing…
Almost done reviewing… Do particles have the same properties as electromagnetic energy? Will you be using radioactive elements that emit Alpha and Beta particles in your chiropractic practice? What is the only similarity between xrays and Alpha and Beta particles? Will exposure to xradiation leave matter radioactive? Whew!
Whew! To avoid being exposed to xrays, how long must you wait before entering the xray room after the exposure is terminated?
Why is a free electron in human tissue a worry?
Which has the greatest/least specific ionization? Alpha Beta XRay Which has the longest/shortest range? Alpha Beta XRay XRay Production Heat Production
Heat Production Most of the kinetic energy of the projectile electrons is transformed to thermal energy by interactions with outer shell electrons of the target atoms. These interactions are primarily excitations rather than ionization. Electron Shell Arrangement and Electron Shell Arrangement and Binding Power The binding force on the electron shells holding the electrons in orbit around the nucleus weakens as the number of shells increase
The electrons in the K shell have the strongest binding power and require the most energy to dislodge from orbit
The electrons in the peripheral shells are easier to displace. Characteristic XRay Production
Characteristic XRay Production Projectile electron interacts with the kshell target electron
Kicks the electron out of its orbit
Projectile electron can to on to other interactions if it has energy left over
The hole in the kshell is filled by an outer shell electron
In the process of dropping energy levels to get to the k
shell, a photon is emitted. Bremmstrahlung Production
(aka General or braking radiation) Electron passes near the nucleus
Positive charge of the nucleus acts upon the negative charge of the projectile electron
Electron is attractedtoward the nucleus and therefore deflected from its original directions
Electron loses energy and slows down when the direction changes
The kinetic energy lost by the projectile electron is emitted in the form of an xray photon ...
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- Winter '11