RADD 2501 X-Ray Production Revised

RADD 2501 X-Ray Production Revised - QUIZ Consider the...

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Unformatted text preview: QUIZ Consider the specific ionization of Alpha particles, Beta particles and X­ray. Consider the range in matter of Alpha particles, Beta particles and X­ray due to their specific ionizations Consider the DNA molecule and its double helix structure. If one strand is broken, there is the other strand to act as a template for repair. Ionizing radiation effects are broken into two categories: Direct Effects – Ionization of DNA molecule Indirect Effects – Production of free radicals due to the ionization of the water molecule 1. Relative to Alpha and Beta particles, x­rays are __________ likely to cause a direct effect resulting in a DNA mutation. A. More likely B. Less likely C. Equally Review Review What is an X­ray? Describe electromagnetic energy in terms of Mass Charge Velocity List other types of electromagnetic energies in order of their energies relative to x­ray. More Review More Review Define Ionize Define Ion Pair Define specific ionization Which of the types of energies in the electromagnetic spectrum have the ability to ionize? What makes an x­ray photon higher energy than a microwave? State the wave equation Even MORE Review Even MORE Review What is a gamma ray? What is the difference between gamma rays and x­rays? Is a gamma ray always higher energy than an x­ray? Will you, as a chiropractor, ever use gamma rays in your practice? Where do alpha and beta particles originate? Almost done reviewing… Almost done reviewing… Do particles have the same properties as electromagnetic energy? Will you be using radioactive elements that emit Alpha and Beta particles in your chiropractic practice? What is the only similarity between x­rays and Alpha and Beta particles? Will exposure to x­radiation leave matter radioactive? Whew! Whew! To avoid being exposed to x­rays, how long must you wait before entering the x­ray room after the exposure is terminated? Why is a free electron in human tissue a worry? Which has the greatest/least specific ionization? Alpha Beta X­Ray Which has the longest/shortest range? Alpha Beta X­Ray X­Ray Production Heat Production Heat Production Most of the kinetic energy of the projectile electrons is transformed to thermal energy by interactions with outer shell electrons of the target atoms. These interactions are primarily excitations rather than ionization. Electron Shell Arrangement and Electron Shell Arrangement and Binding Power The binding force on the electron shells holding the electrons in orbit around the nucleus weakens as the number of shells increase The electrons in the K shell have the strongest binding power and require the most energy to dislodge from orbit The electrons in the peripheral shells are easier to displace. Characteristic X­Ray Production Characteristic X­Ray Production Projectile electron interacts with the k­shell target electron Kicks the electron out of its orbit Projectile electron can to on to other interactions if it has energy left over The hole in the k­shell is filled by an outer shell electron In the process of dropping energy levels to get to the k­ shell, a photon is emitted. Bremmstrahlung Production Bremmstrahlung Production (aka General or braking radiation) Electron passes near the nucleus Positive charge of the nucleus acts upon the negative charge of the projectile electron Electron is attractedtoward the nucleus and therefore deflected from its original directions Electron loses energy and slows down when the direction changes The kinetic energy lost by the projectile electron is emitted in the form of an x­ray photon ...
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