RADD 2501 Sources of Ionizing Radiation

RADD 2501 Sources of Ionizing Radiation - Reactor Concepts...

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Reactor Concepts Manual Natural and Man-Made Radiation Sources USNRC Technical Training Center 6-1 0703 Natural and Man-Made Radiation Sources All living creatures, from the beginning of time, have been, and are still being, exposed to radiation. This chapter will discuss the sources of this radiation, which are: Natural Background Radiation Man-Made Sources of Radiation
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Reactor Concepts Manual Natural and Man-Made Radiation Sources USNRC Technical Training Center 6-2 0703 Natural Background Sources: Cosmic Radiation Terrestrial Radiation Internal Radiation Natural background radiation comes from three sources: Cosmic Radiation Terrestrial Radiation Internal Radiation
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Reactor Concepts Manual Natural and Man-Made Radiation Sources USNRC Technical Training Center 6-3 0703 ATMOSPHERE SUN - + + + + + - - - - EARTH Cosmic Radiation The earth, and all living things on it, are constantly bombarded by radiation from space, similar to a steady drizzle of rain. Charged particles from the sun and stars interact with the earth’s atmosphere and magnetic field to produce a shower of radiation, typically beta and gamma radiation. The dose from cosmic radiation varies in different parts of the world due to differences in elevation and to the effects of the earth’s magnetic field.
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Reactor Concepts Manual Natural and Man-Made Radiation Sources USNRC Technical Training Center 6-4 0703 Terrestrial Radiation Radioactive material found in: Soil Water Vegetation Radioactive material is also found throughout nature. It is in the soil, water, and vegetation. Low levels of uranium, thorium, and their decay products are found everywhere. Some of these materials are ingested with food and water, while others, such as radon, are inhaled. The dose from terrestrial sources also varies in different parts of the world. Locations with higher concentrations of uranium and thorium in their soil have higher dose levels. The major isotopes of concern for terrestrial radiation are uranium and the decay products of uranium, such as thorium, radium, and radon.
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Reactor Concepts Manual Natural and Man-Made Radiation Sources USNRC Technical Training Center 6-5 0703 Internal Radiation Potassium-40 Carbon-14 Lead-210 In addition to the cosmic and terrestrial sources, all people also have radioactive potassium-40, carbon- 14, lead-210, and other isotopes inside their bodies from birth. The variation in dose from one person to another is not as great as the variation in dose from cosmic and terrestrial sources. The average annual dose to a person from internal radioactive material is about 40 millirems/year.
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Reactor Concepts Manual Natural and Man-Made Radiation Sources USNRC Technical Training Center 6-6 0703 Man-made radiation sources result in exposures to: Members of the public Occupationally exposed individuals Although all people are exposed to natural sources of radiation, there are two distinct groups exposed
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RADD 2501 Sources of Ionizing Radiation - Reactor Concepts...

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