RADD 2501 Henry Ford Health Center - Radiation Physics

RADD 2501 Henry Ford Health Center - Radiation Physics -...

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Radiation Safety Office Henry Ford Health System 1. Radiation Physics 1. Radiation Physics 2. Radiation Biology 3. Fluoroscopy System Description and Operation 4. Case Studies of Radiation Injury 5. Reducing Radiation Exposure Fluoro Training Exam (12/01) Fluoro Training References Chapter 1: Radiation Physics Introduction Why do we have this course? The use of X-ray fluoroscopy has increased dramatically in recent years and is spreading beyond the radiology department where users traditionally have extensive fluoroscopy training. The power of fluoroscopy units, especially portable units, has steadily increased. Thus, there is a higher potential for excessive radiation exposure to personnel and patients. The FDA has articulated particular concern about the following procedures (TableI-1): Table I-1: Procedures of Particular Concern to FDA Procedures Involving Extended Fluoroscopy Exposures ¤ ¥ Radiofrequency cardiac catheter ablation Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA, PTA) Vascular embolization Stent and filter placement Thrombolytic and fibrinolytic procedures Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) Percutaneous nephrostomy, biliary drainage, or stone removal ¤ FDA 1994
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¥ Note: The risk of adverse radiation effects originating from a medically necessary procedure is almost always offset by the benefit received by the patient. However, in order to improve the benefit-risk tradeoff for these procedures, it is incumbent on the operator to understand radiation effects and utilize methods to avoid them or reduce their severity. This course is written as a primer for medical personnel who use fluoroscopy equipment in the practice of medicine. It covers some basic principles of radiation physics, biology, and radiation safety in order to provide an understanding of the optimal utilization of fluoroscopy, while minimizing exposures to the patient, operators, and their colleagues. This course is a supplement to, and is not a substitute for, traditional medical education. Radiation Exposure and Public Health Measures The greatest single source of man-made radiation exposure to the average person in the United States comes from medical irradiation. Medical doses range from a few mrad for a chest X-ray to thousands of rad in the treatment of cancer. The average U.S. citizen gets an effective dose from diagnostic medical radiation of about 100 mrad per year (Figure I-1) Figure I-1: Sources of Radiation Exposure Studies indicate that this medical radiation exposure can be reduced by optimizing the use of fluoroscopy (NRCP 1989). These optimizing procedures are given in Table I- 2: Table I-2: Optimizing Action Ranking for Fluoroscopy Optimizing Action Potential Dose Reduction Factor Audio output related to X-ray machine output 1.3
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Optimization of Video Camera system 3 Required switching between High (Boost) and Normal modes 1.5 Optimizing Operator
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RADD 2501 Henry Ford Health Center - Radiation Physics -...

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