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MICR 2537 Class Notes - Dr Abghari

MICR 2537 Class Notes - Dr Abghari - Class Note Dr Abghari...

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Class Note- Dr. Abghari Immunology: Immunology began as a branch of microbiology; it grew out of the study of infectious diseases and the body responses to them. Immunology = Study of the immune system Immune System is the body?s defense system against invasion by microbes Immunity is originated from Latin word ?IMMUNIS? IMMUNITY = A state of protection from infection and disease The word ?Immunology? first appeared in the index Medicuin 1910 A. Introduction to immunology Immune system is body defense system against pathogenic microbes Immune system is made up from the cells that distributed throughout the body, and predominantly in the lymphoreticular organs. Immune system function is to 1. recognize 2. respond To eliminate foreign invaders History of Immunology 1.Thucydides A historian from peloponnesian pointed out 2500 years ago, in a remarkable description of an epidemic in Athens (of what might have been typhus fever or plague ), that those people that recovered from the disease were never attacked by second time. 3. Middle Ages awareness Led to attempts in China and Turkey to induce Immunity by inoculating well persons with materials scraped from skin lesion (pustules) of persons suffering from small pox. The procedure called variolation practice and was hazardous. 3. Variolation practice brought to England by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu for their positive effects, but later outlawed because of hazardous effects. 4. Sir Edward Jenner In the late 18 century, a safe related procedure was established by Jenner. Jenner, a country doctor in England, noted in 1798 that a pustular disease of the horse called ?the grease ? was frequently carried by farm worker to the nipples of cows, where it was picked up by milkmaids. Spots
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then began to appear on the hands of the domestics employed in milking. But what render the cow pox virus so extremely singular, was that the person who had been thus affected was for ever after secure from the infection of small pox. Since Jenner was unclear about the nature infectious agent of cow pox and its relation to small pox he inserted matter taken from a sore on the hand of dairymaid into the arm of a 8 years boy by means of two superficial incisions. Two month later, Jenner inoculated the same boy with matter from a small pox patient. The boy exposure to the mild disease CowPox had made him immune to the deadly disease of small pox. It is remarkable that Jenner?s work was not extended until nearly 100 years later by Pasteur that exploit the general principles underlying vaccination 5. Louis Pasteur a. Fermentation was due to a living microorganism (1864) b. Disproved the theory of spontaneous generation (1867) c. Developed 3 attenuated vaccines (1880) 1. Cholera vaccine for chiken 2 . Anthrax vaccine for sheep 3. Rabies vaccine for human 6. Robert Koch Anthrax was first transmitted from in vitro culture to animal and fulfilling Koch?s postulates, which were required to prove that the bacteria caused the disease (1876) 7. Elie Metchinkoff In 1883, Metchinkoff observed the phagocytosis
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