MICR 2537 Test 3 Notes - Type III Hypersensitivity (Immune...

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Type III Hypersensitivity (Immune Complex Reaction): Exposure to a profuse quantity of soluble antigens stimulates the production of large quantities of antibody and formation antibody- antigen complex. Deposition of complex in the basement membrane of epithelial tissue activation of complement results in damaging inflammatory r esponse (figure). Types of Immune Complex disorders 1. Immune complex disease: A. Glomerulonephritis Several weeks post streptococal infection lymph deposit of immune complex on glomerul basement membrane will be formed that activate complement . Activation of complement attracts neutrophils , which start the inflammatory process. B. Infective endocarditis Similar lesion with lumpy deposits containing immune complex will occur in heart C. Rheumatoid Arthritis, (RA), Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) and scleroderma are autoimmune diseases that can be considered as type III Hypersensitivity reaction(formation of immune complex is involved). 2. Arthus Reaction (local type): localized reaction to a series of injected antigens at same site area becomes red, hot, swollen, and very painful . symptoms due to the destruction of tissue around blood vessels and the release of histamine from mast cell and basophils. reaction is self- limiting and rapidly cleared. Chronic local III reactions occur in response to repeatedly inhaled antigens, leading to persistent inflammation in the lungs and to respiratory problems. Examples: Farmer?s lung ( fungal spore in the dust of moldy hay) Pigeon fancier?s disease (serum proteinpresent in the dust of dried pigeon feces Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilosis ( fungus aspergillus found in plant, and animals) 3. Serum sickness (systemic type) : condition that appeared in soldiers after repeated injection of horse serum to treat tetanus . also caused by injections of animal hormones and drugs . The immune complex enter the circulation, are carried throughout the body, and deposited in blood vessels of the kidney, heart, skin, and joints (figure). condition can become chronic, causing symptoms such as enlarged lymph nodes, rashes, painful joints, swelling, fever, and renal dysfunction (symptoms
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will start a few days to 2 weeks after injection). Type IV: Delayed Type Hypersensitivity(DTH) cell mediated . Example: Tuberculin reaction and organ rejection in organ transplantation antigen specific T cells become sensitized (DTH cells). DTH cells produce cytokines that attract and activate other mononuclear cells that are not antigen - specific (monocyte and macrophage) to the area of invasion that causes tissue damage. response ( 24-72 hours) after contact with antigen, and often last for days. Clinical manifestations are edema, erythema, and induration resulting from heavy in filtration by leukocytes . Two types:
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MICR 2537 Test 3 Notes - Type III Hypersensitivity (Immune...

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