ANAT 2646 Exam 1 review - CNS EXAM 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE...

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CNS – EXAM 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Anatomic Divisions Central Nervous System o Brian Forebrain Telencephalon Diencephalon Midbrain Hindbrian Pons Cerebellum Medulla Oblongata o Spinal Cord Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Coccygeal Peripheral Nervous System o 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerves o 31 Pairs of Spinal Nerves Ventral roots Dorsal roots Ganglia Functional Divisions Autonomic Nervous System (Visceral) o Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar) Nervous System – prepares the body for emergencies. Fight or Flight. o Parasympathetic (Craniosacral) Nervous System – conserves and restores energy. Rest and Digest, Feed and Breed. Somatic Nervous System The brainstem consists of: Midbrain Pons Medulla CNS Protection 3 layers of connective tissue CSF
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Fat Bone Muscle Gray Matter – consists of cell bodies (cortex, nuclei, ganglia), and unmyelinated fibers, usually dendrites. Nuclei refers to a collection of cell bodies within the CNS and ganglia refers to a collection of cell bodies within the PNS. White Matter – consists of myelinated fibers, usually axons. Tract Lemniscus – a tract in the brainstem Fasicle – aka for tract Peduncle – connector tracts Spinoreticular – Ascending Reticulospinal – Descending Motor Control Basal Ganglia Cerebellum Vestibular system Special Senses Vision Hearing Chemical Senses Homeostasis Autonomic Nervous System Hypothalamus DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM The embryo is a 3 layered structure made of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. The nervous system develops from ectoderm. The nervous system begins to develop toward the end of the 3 rd week by a process called Neurulation. Neurulation is when the notochord induces the overlying ectoderm to migrate towards the center of the embryo. The Notochord is a dense structure that acts as an axial skeleton and sends chemical messages to the overlying ectoderm telling it to migrate towards the middle and compact – this forms the neural plate. The Neural Groove – folds on each side which eventually come together to form the Neural Tube, which later forms the spinal cord. The tops of each fold are the
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neural crests. When the two sides come together, the neural crests are pinched off and form the PNS. Neural Crest cells are highly migratory cells. The Neural Tube balloons as it grows and forms 3 primary vesicles: o Prosencephalon – forebrain o Mesencephalon – midbrain o Rhombencephalon – hindbrain Prosencephalon further divides into (lateral expansion becomes the cerebrum) : o Telencephalon – grows slow Primitive cerebral hemispheres Corpus striatum White matter Cerebral Cortex o Diencephalon – grows slow Thalamus Hypothalamus Metathalamus Epithalamus Subthamalmus Mesencephalon further divides into: o
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course ANAT 2646 taught by Professor Ronaldg.mayne during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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ANAT 2646 Exam 1 review - CNS EXAM 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE...

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