DIAG 2730 Introduction to Orthopedic Diagnosis

DIAG 2730 Introduction to Orthopedic Diagnosis -...

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Introduction to Orthopedic Diagnosis A working knowledge of the MS system forms the foundation of every orthopedic exam, physical examination, evaluation, and intervention (care plan). Biomechanics and anatomy and how they relate to function is the key to diagnosis – what is normal versus abnormal for that patient– what structures and tissues are functioning properly versus not working or only partially functioning
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Biomechanics of Movement A fundamental skill of a chiropractor is to identify, analyze and solve problems related to human movement When describing movements there is a need for starting position = reference position. This starting position is referred to as the anatomical reference position . (anatomical position)
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Biomechanics of Movement The anatomical position for the human body = erect standing position feet slightly separated, arms hanging by the side, elbows straight & palms of the hand facing forward   
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Directional Terms Superior or cranial – Closer to the head Inferior or caudal – Closer to the feet Anterior or ventral – Toward the front of the body Posterior or dorsal – Toward the back of the body Medial – Toward the midline of the body Lateral – Away from the midline of the body
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Planes of the Body There are 3 planes of the body = 3 dimensions of space: sagittal, frontal, and transverse Sagittal plane = aka anterior-posterior or median plane. Divides the body vertically into left and right halves of equal size Frontal plane= aka lateral or coronal plane. Divides the body equally into front and back halves Transverse plane= aka horizontal plane. Divides the body equally into top and bottom halves
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Axes of the Body 3 reference axes are used to describe human motion: frontal, sagittal, and longitudinal. The axis around which the movement takes place is always perpendicular to the plane in which it occurs.
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Axes of the Body Frontal. The frontal axis, aka transverse axis, is perpendicular to the sagittal plane Sagittal. The sagittal axis is perpendicular to the frontal plane Longitudinal. The longitudinal axis, aka vertical axis is perpendicular to the transverse plane
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The planes & axes for common movements Flexion, extension, hyperextension, dorsiflexion, & plantar flexion occur in the sagittal plane around a frontal-horizontal axis Abduction, adduction; side flexion of the trunk; elevation & depression of the shoulder girdle; radial / ulnar deviation of wrist; eversion / inversion of foot occur in the frontal plane around a sagittal-horizontal axis
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The planes & axes for common movements Rotation of head, neck & trunk; internal rotation/ external rotation of the arm or leg; horizontal adduction/abduction of the arm or thigh; pronation/supination of the forearm occur in the transverse plane around the longitudinal axis Circumduction involves an orderly sequence of circular movements that occur in the sagittal, frontal and oblique planes, so that segment as a whole incorporates a combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course DIAG 2730 taught by Professor Ronaldg.mayne during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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DIAG 2730 Introduction to Orthopedic Diagnosis -...

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