PATH 2541 Class Notes - Inflammation

PATH 2541 Class Notes - Inflammation - Prof A.Bourdeinyi...

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Prof. A.Bourdeinyi INFLAMMATION. Historically inflammation is characterized by 5 signs and symptoms, which have been created by famous ancient physicians - Celcus and Galen: - dolor (pain) - calor (heat - tumor (swelling) - rubor (redness) - functio laesa (loss of function) Inflammation is one of the most important mechanisms of defense against any intruder, and represents a significant part of the nonspecific resistance. Inflammation can develop in all vascularized tissues at the level of microcirculation . Normal microcirculation. Microcirculation represents extensive network of the small vessels that pass among the cells of almost all the tissues and consists of the following vessels: - precapillary arterioles - capillaries - postcapillary venules The vessels, which participate in inflammation, are: - capillaries - postcapillary venules The exchange of fluid between the vessels and interstitial tissue depends on four factors: - blood hydrostatic pressure - tissue osmotic pressure 1
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- tissue hydrostatic pressure - blood osmotic pressure In the arterial end of the capillary fluid escapes from the capillaries into the tissues because of: high blood hydrostatic pressure (due to high pressure in arteries ); high tissue osmotic pressure (due to higher concentration of the solutes in the interstitial tissue). In the venous end of the capillary fluid goes back, from the interstitial tissue to the capillaries due to: increased tissue hydrostatic pressure (because of excessive fluid accumulation in the interstitial tissue); increased blood osmotic pressure (because concentration of solutes in the capillaries gets higher after escape of fluid from them). ACUTE INFLAMMATION Acute inflammation has two components: - vascular - cellular Vascular component of the acute inflammation consists of: 1. increased blood flow 2. increased permeability of vessels (both capillaries and venules) It accounts for: redness ( rubor ) warmth ( calor ) swelling, a.k.a. edema ( tumor ) Cellular component of the acute inflammation accounts for movement of large amount of white blood cells ( leukocytes ) to the site of inflammation for inactivation and elimination of the intruders. Both vascular and cellular components participate in the formation of exudate . 2
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Exudate is protein-rich fluid, suspended substances and cells at the site of inflammation. Fluid, accumulated in the interstitial tissue without increased vascular permeability (it happens in active muscle work, for example) is called transudate . Transudate is essentially an ultrafiltrate of blood plasma and contains little protein. Specific gravity is: of transudate – 1,012 or less of exudates – 1,020 or more Vascular factors of exudates formation. Immediately after injury there is dilation of
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course PATH 2541 taught by Professor Ronaldg.mayne during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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PATH 2541 Class Notes - Inflammation - Prof A.Bourdeinyi...

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