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PATH 2541 Class Notes - Introduction and Cell Injury

PATH 2541 Class Notes - Introduction and Cell Injury - Prof...

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Prof. A.Bourdeinyi INTRODUCTION Pathology is a discipline bridging clinical practice and basic science. Often the terms pathology and pathophysiology are used interchangeably. Although the first term is broader, strictly speaking pathology deals with macro- or microscopic structures of the organs and tissues. Pathophysiology characterizes more abnormal functioning of the organs and systems. TERMINOLOGY The cause of a disease is called etiology or etiological factor . Examples: low back pain may be caused by disc herniation or bone tumor. Both are considered as etiologies of low back pain. Idiopathic disease is the one, which does not have known etiology . Example: the cause of DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis) is unknown, that's why it is called idiopathic. There are three types of etiology: 1. Genetic - when a disorder is associated with transferring of abnormal genes from parents to children. Examples: three instead of two chromosomes on 21 st pair of chromosomes in Down's syndrome, genetic mutation in cystic fibrosis. 2. Congenital - when there is impairment of normal embryo's intrauterine development. Examples: Toxoplasma (a Protozoa) in toxoplasmosis, alcohol in fetal alcohol syndrome. 3. Acquired - when a disease is caused by the factors other than genetic or developmental ones. 1
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Examples: Herpes virus in herpes zoster, smoking in emphysema, Mycobacteria tuberculosis in tuberculosis. The diseases are manifested by symptoms and signs . Symptoms are subjective expressions of a disease. Nobody except a patient can feel and describe them. Examples: pain, heartburn, palpitation, feeling of fever. Signs are objective manifestations of a disease; they can be detected by physical, biochemical or other types of examination. Examples: leg length out of balance in the case of vertebral subluxation, increased body temperature, elevated blood pressure, increased blood concentration of cholesterol. Syndrome is the characteristic combination of signs and symptoms associated with particular diseases. It is not a separate clinical unity. A syndrome could accompany different diseases. Examples: Raynaud's syndrome may be a manifestation of such disorders like systemic sclerosis, immunohemolytic anemia. Sjogren's (dry) syndrome usually accompanies rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus. Pathogenesis is the pattern of the disease development. Acute condition is characterized by rapid onset of a disease, its quick development and is usually of short duration. Examples: common cold (develops quickly, lasts 7-10 days), acute appendicitis (rapid onset, develops quickly, requires immediate surgical operation). Chronic condition is associated with long duration of a disease (months, years), but sometimes abrupt, sometimes insidious onset. Examples:
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PATH 2541 Class Notes - Introduction and Cell Injury - Prof...

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