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PATH 2541 Class Notes - Midterm (Additional)

PATH 2541 Class Notes - Midterm (Additional) - Pathology 1...

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Pathology 1 Spring 2004 – MIDTERM NOTES Pathology - disorder of the human body. Deals with macro- or microscopic structures of the organs and tissues. Pathophysiology - characterizes abnormal functioning of the organs and systems. Etiology - the cause of a disease Examples: pneumonia - caused by influenza virus Acute cystitis - changes in bladder wall caused by E. coli or drugs Low back pain - may be caused by disc herniation or bone tumor. Idiopathic - not have known etiology . Example: the cause of DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis) is unknown . It is the ossification of ALL, or ankylosing spondylitis. There is loss of ROM. (picture of hunched over man Three categories of Etiology: 1. Genetic : - when a disorder is associated with transferring of abnormal genes from parents to children. Caused by gene mutation (radiation) or is genetic e.g.: Down's syndrome – three instead of two chromosomes on 21 st pair. Patient presents with mongoloid characteristics e.g.: Huntington's chorea - jerky movements of the face and limbs (chorea). Atrophy of midbrain, usually affects people after 30. e.g.: Cystic Fibrosis – gene mutation causes kidney cysts 2. Congenital : - the genetic information is intact but impairment of normal embryo's intrauterine development. e.g.: Renal Dysplasia e.g.: Toxoplasm - a protozoa is contracted to mother through dogs or cats. e.g.: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – Hydrocephelia 3. Acquired : - Infection e.g.: Emphysema - Caused by Smoking e.g.: Herbie Zoster - Looks like a rash (dermatome) e.g.: Brain Abscess - by compressing acne, infection goes into venous system of the brain. 1
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Symptoms - Subjective Feelings like Headache or Pain Signs - Objective Findings Founded in the Physical Exam like Fever or Blood Pressure Syndrome - the Characteristic Combination of Signs and Symptoms Associated with the Particular Disease. e. g.: Raynaud’s syndrome - Characterized by White Fingers e.g.: Sjogren’s syndrome - body cannot produce mucus which causes dryness. Pathogenesis - a pattern of development of a specific disease - there is a unique pattern for all disorders Acute disease - fast to develop and short duration e.g.: the common cold Chronic disease - slow development and long-duration e.g.: tuberculosis Local disease - confined within a single organ and can be surgically removed. e.g.: subluxation , stomach cancer of fundus Systemic disease - majority of an organ or more than one organ Focal damage - damage confined to one or two sites of pathology (Small portion of an organ) Diffuse Damage - the majority of an organ is affected or involved in pathology. Diagnosis - identification of a specific disease Note : based on the diagnosis we make a care plan or a treatment plan. Based on other results from this treatment we determined a prognosis (prediction about outcome). 2
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PATH 2541 Class Notes - Midterm (Additional) - Pathology 1...

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