PATH 2541 Class Notes - Midterm

PATH 2541 Class Notes - Midterm - PATHOLOGY MIDTERM NOTES...

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PATHOLOGY MIDTERM NOTES Often pathology and pathophysiology are used interchangeably. Pathology is a broader term dealing with macro or microscopic structures of the organs and tissues, whereas pathophysiology characterizes more abnormal functioning of the organs and systems. The word pathology is derived from 2 greek words; pathos – suffering, logos – study of. TERMINOLOGY Etiology : the cause of a disease, etiological factor/agent. There are 3 categories. Examples: low back pain may be caused by disc herniation or bone tumor. o Genetic Etiology : when an individuals genes are responsible for some structural or functional defect, transferring of abnormal genes from parents to children. Examples: Down’s Syndrome – 3 instead of 2 chromosomes on the 21 st pair; Huntington’s Disease, Cystic fibrosis – genetic mutation affecting the lungs and kidneys. o Congenital Etiology : when the genetic information is intact, but other factors in the embryo’s intrauterine environment interfere with normal development, impairment of normal embryo development. Examples: Toxoplasma (a protozoa) in toxoplasmosis, fetal alcohol syndrome, thalidomide or other chemicals o Acquired Etiology : when a disease is caused by factors other than genetic of developmental ones. Examples: Bullous emphysema caused by smoking, shingles caused by the herpes zoster virus, brain abcess caused by bacteria from pimple popping. Idiopathic : unknown etiology/cause. Examples: DISH (Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis – ossified ALL), ankylosing spondylitis Diseases are manifested by symptoms and signs Symptom : subjective complaints of the patient, no one except the patient can feel and describe them. Examples – headache, heartburn, palpitation, dizziness, pain, feeling of fever Sign : objective findings, they can be detected by physical, biochemical, or other types of examination. Examples – temperature, blood pressure, leg length imbalance due to subluxation, increased cholesterol in blood Syndrome : characteristic combination of signs and symptoms associated with particular diseases, it is not a separate clinical unity, a syndrome could accompany different diseases. o Raynaud’s Syndrome – spasm of the blood vessels of the fingers and toes, no blood flow turns skin white, then blue, then red when blood finally reaches the area. This syndrome may be a manifestation of disorders like systemic sclerosis or immunohemolytic anemia.
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o Sjogren’s Syndrome – dryness of the mucous membranes due to damage of the exocrine glands. This syndrome may be a manifestation of disorders like rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. Pathogenisis : the pattern of the disease development. Example – osteoarthritis/ degenerative joint disease is associated with the overload of cartilage so it is recommended not to overload the joints, don’t run, and to lose weight. o
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PATH 2541 Class Notes - Midterm - PATHOLOGY MIDTERM NOTES...

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