PATHOLOGY MIDTERM NOTES
Often pathology and pathophysiology are used interchangeably.
Pathology is a
broader term dealing with macro or microscopic structures of the organs and tissues,
whereas pathophysiology characterizes more abnormal functioning of the organs and
The word pathology is derived from 2 greek words; pathos – suffering, logos –
: the cause of a disease, etiological factor/agent.
There are 3 categories.
Examples: low back pain may be caused by disc herniation or bone tumor.
: when an individuals genes are responsible for some
structural or functional defect, transferring of abnormal genes from parents
Examples: Down’s Syndrome – 3 instead of 2 chromosomes
on the 21
pair; Huntington’s Disease, Cystic fibrosis – genetic mutation
affecting the lungs and kidneys.
when the genetic information is intact, but other
factors in the embryo’s intrauterine environment interfere with normal
development, impairment of normal embryo development.
Toxoplasma (a protozoa) in toxoplasmosis, fetal alcohol syndrome,
thalidomide or other chemicals
when a disease is caused by factors other than genetic
of developmental ones.
Bullous emphysema caused by
smoking, shingles caused by the herpes zoster virus, brain abcess caused
by bacteria from pimple popping.
: unknown etiology/cause.
Examples: DISH (Diffuse Idiopathic
Skeletal Hyperostosis – ossified ALL), ankylosing spondylitis
Diseases are manifested by symptoms and signs
: subjective complaints of the patient, no one except the patient can feel
and describe them. Examples – headache, heartburn, palpitation, dizziness, pain,
feeling of fever
: objective findings, they can be detected by physical, biochemical, or other
types of examination. Examples – temperature, blood pressure, leg length
imbalance due to subluxation, increased cholesterol in blood
: characteristic combination of signs and symptoms associated with
particular diseases, it is not a separate clinical unity, a syndrome could accompany
– spasm of the blood vessels of the fingers and toes,
no blood flow turns skin white, then blue, then red when blood finally
reaches the area.
This syndrome may be a manifestation of disorders like
systemic sclerosis or immunohemolytic anemia.