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PATH 2541 Class Notes Part I - Pathology is a discipline...

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1/12/07 Pathology is a discipline bridging clinical practice and basic science. Pathology - deals with macro- or microscopic structures of the organs and tissues. Pathophysiology - characterizes more abnormal functioning of the organs and systems. Etiology - the cause of a disease Ex. low back pain causes : disc herniation or bone tumor. Idiopathic - disease which does not have known etiology . Ex. 1.cause of DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis) unknown 2. cause of ankylosing spondylosis unknown. There are three types of etiology: 1. Genetic - disorder is associated with transferring of abnormal genes from parents to children. Ex. 1. Down's syndrome – one extra chromosome 2. Cystic fibrosis – cysts in kidneys 3. Huntington’s disease – chorea, atrophy of midbrain, dies 2. Congenital - there is impairment of normal embryo's intrauterine development. Ex. 1. Toxoplasma (a Protozoa) in toxoplasmosis, 2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome . 3. Acquired - disease is caused by the factors other than genetic or developmental ones Ex. 1. Shingles from Herpes Zoster 2. Emphysema 3. Tuberculosis 4. Brain Abscess – from staph aureus Diseases are manifested by symptoms and signs . Symptoms - subjective expressions of a disease. Nobody except a patient can feel and describe them, cannot be reproduced with testing. Ex. pain, heartburn, palpitation, feeling of fever. Signs - objective manifestations of a disease; they can be detected by physical, biochemical or other types of examination. Ex. leg length out of balance in the case of vertebral subluxation, increased body temperature, elevated blood pressure, increased blood concentration of cholesterol. Syndrome is characteristic combination of signs and symptoms associated with particular diseases. It is not a separate clinical entity. A syndrome could accompany different diseases. An example is: 1. Raynaud's syndrome – characterized by spasm of peripheral small arteries of fingers, cause change in color from white blue red. May be a manifestation of such disorders like systemic sclerosis or immunohemolytic anemia. 2. Sjogren's (dry) syndrome total dryness of mucous membranes, usually accompanies rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus. Pathogenesis is the pattern of the disease development. Acute condition is characterized by rapid onset of a disease, its quick development and is usually of short duration. Ex. common cold, acute appendicitis Chronic condition is associated with long duration of a disease (months, years) Ex. tuberculosis, cancer. Local disease - confined to one region of the body, e.g. in one organ. 1
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Systemic - involves other organs and systems. Ex. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lung ( local damage) could spread throughout the body when the body's immune system is compromised ( systemic damage).
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