PATH 2541 Class Notes Part II - For Final (Additional)

PATH 2541 Class Notes Part II - For Final (Additional) -...

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PATHOLOGY FINAL EXAM TYPES OF HEMORRHAGES Petechiae – pinpoint size rash, in the brain it can be a result of a fat embolism, in the skin is can be a result of Vitamin C deficiency Purpura – larger rash with spots less than 2cm in diameter, hemorrhagic vasculitis Ecchymoses – bruises, when hemorrhages are more than 2cm in diameter o In Cushing’s Syndrome bruising is very easy due to hypercorticosteroids in the body Hematoma – aka blood tumor, bleeding into a body compartment or large muscle o Epidural hematomas can cause death after a trauma CLOTTING FACTOR DISORDERS (from Ameripress because I don’t have the book) Thrombocytopenia – a lack of platelets, can result in petechiae or purpura hemorrhages Von Willebrand Disease – an autosomal dominant inheritance (meaning the parents have to have this disease for the child to get it), results in eccymoses and hematomas. There is a lack of production of Von Willebrand clotting factor which is needed to form a platelet plug. The stomach and intestines are commonly affected and women have menorrhagia (leaking of blood from the uterus). Hemophilia A – classic hemophilia, there is a lack of production of clotting factor VIII (antihemophilic clotting factor). Platelets normally produce clotting factor VIII to increase fibrin production, but in this disease they are unable to do so. Hemophilia B – Christmas disease, there is a lack of production of clotting factor IX (Christmas factor). o Both hemophilia A and B are characterized by hemarthrosis (hematomas into the joint). They develop only in males (X chromosome linked disease) and their mother was a just a carrier. Czar Nicholas, who lead a revolution in Russia, had hemophilia. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BLOOD CLOTS AND THROMBI Clots may form inside or outside of blood vessels. Thrombi can only form inside blood vessels (arteries and veins). Thrombi have a point of attachment to the blood vessel wall, whereas clots do not. The primary mechanism in clot formation is platelet activation and coagulation. The primary mechanism in thrombi formation is just platelet activation, not coagulation. Coagulation occurs as a side effect. Thrombi are more organized than clots. HEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS – result in an interruption of normal blood flow Thrombus – when the blood clots unnecessarily, develops from the process called thrombosis. Thrombi consist of fibrin strands and blood cells. Thrombi are usually formed in veins due to the slower blood flow. They are rare to form in
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arteries unless there was a major trauma. When they do form in arteries they are smaller and more firm/dense. In veins they are larger and loose and pieces can break off. 90% of all thrombi are made in the deep veins of the legs. Iatrogenic thrombi (caused by medical intervention) are rare, and intravenous injections do not cause thrombi. Lines of Zahn
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course PATH 2541 taught by Professor Ronaldg.mayne during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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PATH 2541 Class Notes Part II - For Final (Additional) -...

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