PATH 2541 Neoplasia - NEOPLASIA Neoplasia is widespread and...

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NEOPLASIA Neoplasia is widespread and potentially grave abnormality whose more serious form is known as cancer . Cancer occupies number one cause of death in the Unites States and civilized countries. DISORDERS OF TISSUE GROWTH Neoplasia is new tissue formation associated with overgrowth of tissue. This new formed tissue is called neoplastic mass or tumor. Hypertrophy is enlargement of a tissue or organ in response to increased demands. Example : enlargement of the heart muscle in response to muscle overload. Atrophy is shrinkage of a cell or reduction organ size. Hyperplasia is increased production of new cells in amounts needed to meet the particular demands. Examples : - proliferation of glandular epithelium of the female breast during pregnancy; - restoration of liver mass after liver resection. Metaplasia is change of cell type. This is more serious condition, which could in some situations predispose to development of cancer. Examples : - replacement of columnar bronchial epithelial cells by stratified squamous epithelium in havy smokers; - replacement of the stomach columnar epithelial cells by intestinal type epithelial cells in chronic gastritis. Dysplasia is loss in the uniformity of the individual cells as well as a loss of their architectural orientation. It represents more advanced changes and is characterized by presence of pleomorphism . Pleomorphism is associated with: - variability of the cell shape and size ; - larger, more darkly stained nuclei; - increased mitosis rate. Although both metaplasia and dysplasia are reversible conditions the latter is less reversible and may be considered as precancerous state. 1
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In neoplasia there is uncontrolled growth of the tissue beyond normal anatomical boundaries due to irreversible alteration of cell growth pattern. Aplasia is lack of organ development. Hypoplasia represents inadequate development so that final structure is immature and functionally deficient. TUMOR TERMINOLOGY Oncology is the study about tumor ( oncos means tumor in Greek). Two main characteristics determine the tumor: growth pattern and tissue of origin . Growth pattern : tumors fall in two categories – benign and malignant. They are characterized by the following factors: benign tumor malignant tumor - relatively slow growth - more rapid growth - growth in orderly fashion - disordered growth - tumor remains localized - aggressive invasion into adjacent tissue Tissue of origin: For designation of the benign tumors suffix –oma (means tumor ) is added to the root word indicating type of tissue the neoplasm originates from. The names of malignant tumors depend on embryonic origin of the tissue they consist of. Malignant tumor arising of ectoderm or endoderm, is called carcinoma. Malignant tumor arising of
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course PATH 2541 taught by Professor Ronaldg.mayne during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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PATH 2541 Neoplasia - NEOPLASIA Neoplasia is widespread and...

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