PATH 2541 Vitamins and Nutritional Disorders

PATH 2541 Vitamins and Nutritional Disorders - VITAMINS AND...

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VITAMINS AND NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS. VITAMINS There are 2 kinds of vitamins: - water-soluble (B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C) - fat-soluble (A, D, E, K) I. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS. THIAMINE (Vitamin B1) Food sources: - cereal products (not refined) - meat (especially pork), fish, poultry, eggs - vegetables (legumes, peas) Thiamine deficiency is observed: - in underdeveloped countries due to use of polished rice as a part of the diet; - in developed countries: = in chronic alcoholics (25% of alcoholics develops thiamine deficiency); = in pregnant women, when pregnancy is complicated with pernicious vomiting; = in cases of debilitating illnesses complicated with vomiting and diarrhea. The disease resulting from thiamine deficiency is called beriberi (it means "I cannot"). Beriberi is associated with development of three syndromes: 1. Peripheral polyneuropathy ( dry beriberi ). Is characterized by: 1
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- symmetrical polyneuropathy with myelin degeneration; - disruption of axons with involvement of sensory, motor and reflex arc; - more frequent involvement of legs but also arms and result in foot-, toe- and wrist drop; - the progressive sensory loss is accompanied by muscle weakness. 2. Cardiovascular syndrome ( wet beriberi ). Results in: - peripheral vasodilatation; - dilatation of the heart chambers; - thinning of the heart walls; - high-output heart failure. 3. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome . - Wernicke encephalopathy is characterized by: = ophthalmoplegia; = nistagmus; = ataxia of gait and stance; = listlessness; = disorientation. - Korsakoff psychosis is manifested by: = retrograde amnesia; = inability to acquire new information; = confabulation. The most frequently involved areas of lesions in the central nervous system are: - mammilary bodies; - the thalamus; - the cerebellum. RIBOFLAVIN (Vitamin B2). Food sources: - dairy products; - cereal products; - meat, fish, poultry; - vegetables; 2
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- bacteria of the human gastrointestinal tract. Riboflavin deficiency: - is frequently associated with deficiencies of the protein and other vitamins; - develops in: = alcoholics; = patients with chronic infection; = patients with debilitating diseases. Ariboflavinosis results in development of the following pathologies: 1. cheilitis (cheilosis) - characterized by changes at the angles of the mouth. - first - appearance of pallor at the angles, - followed by the cracks or fissures, - the latter could be secondarily infected. 2. glossitis - characterized by atrophy of the tongue. 3. superficial interstitial keratitis - characterized by development of the capillaries at the superficial layers of the cornea, followed by inflammatory changes and swelling, could result in corneal ulcerations. 4. dermatitis of: - nasolabial folds (sometimes looks like butterfly); - cheeks and skin around the ears; - scrotum and vulva. NIACIN (Vitamin B3). Niacin is generic name of nicotinic acid and its functionally active derivatives (for example, nicotinamide ).
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