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RADD 2711 Class Notes - Final Exam Review 2

RADD 2711 Class Notes - Final Exam Review 2 - RADD A FINAL...

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RADD A FINAL EXAM RADIOGRAPHIC SIGNS – list of how bone changes in response to pathology, there is a finite ability, but it seems infinite. (Periosteal reactions, patterns of bone destruction, trabecular changes, and shape changes were all covered in the Midterm material) Periosteal Reactions – how the periosteum responds Patterns of Bone Destruction – bone is being pathologically replaced Trabecular Changes Shape Changes Changes in Bone Density – you must have a properly exposed x-ray to tell if there is a density problem. The soft tissue should be a light gray (if it is black the film is overexposed, if it is white the film is underexposed), the background should be black, the cortex should be bright white and they trabecular bone should be grayish white. To fix a bad x-ray you must first determine whether it is over/under penetrating. Then you must ensure that you are using the correct kVp to penetrate to body part. If the kVp is correct, you have to adjust the mAs for the thickness of the body part. 15% kVp change doubles the density 50-100% mAs change needed to fix density Technique creep can occur with digital radiography because you can over/under expose to patient, but lighten/darken the film on the computer screen. o Bone density can only change in too ways, osteosclerosis or osteopenia (note – these terms are descriptive terms not diagnostic terms!). Both of these can be diffuse of local. Osteosclerosis – bone density is more than normal. The medullary cavity looks like cortical bone. Osteopoikilosis – can be region or diffuse. It is a rare disorder and doesn’t really mean anything clinically. It is usually found around joints. It looks like small round white dots on the bones. It is commonly seen in epiphyseal and metaphyseal regions of long bones, carpals and tarsals, and
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adjacent to the acetabulum in the pelvis and adjacent to the glenoid in the scapula. It is rare to see them in the spine, skull, ribs, and clavicles (but possible). Blastic metastatic disease from prostate or breast cancer can cause localizes osteosclerosis. Mets has not pattern, it is random. Diffuse osteosclerosis is uncommon. If it is present you should think blastic metastatic disease. 10% of blastic mets goes to the extremities, 90% goes to axial. Of that 90%, 80% of it will be found in the spine, ribs, and pelvis. If you see something that looks like osteosclerosis with moth eaten bone destruction this is called mixed metastatic because you have osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity at the same time in the same place. Osteopetrosis – bone that is so dense you can’t tell a difference between primary and secondary spongiosa. This can be something that happens on and off, or something that is progressive. People with this usually become anemic because the medullary cavity becomes crowded and there is less room for the bone marrow. The bones are brittle and subject to pathological transverse fractures. This
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RADD 2711 Class Notes - Final Exam Review 2 - RADD A FINAL...

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