RADD 2711 Hard Tissue 1 Review Questions

RADD 2711 Hard Tissue 1 Review Questions - Hard Tissue 1...

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Hard Tissue 1 Test Questions Enthesis is the point where a ligament or tendon inserts into the bone. There is excellent vascularity at the level right between the reserve and proliferating layer. Type I Salter-Harris is synominous with slipped capital femoral epiphysis and shows a positive Klein’s line. Achondroplasia is that the problem is that “the process” (enchondral ossification) is happening too slowly. Marfan’s syndrome is “the process” (enchondral ossification) is accelerated. Osteopetrosis (AKA Marble Bone) the cartilaginous matrix is never resorbed at the metaphysis. The cartilaginous cells get a burst of oxygen at the proliferative zone. A CT scan provides a transverse (axial) image – an image that is perpendicular to the body; this is like a cross section. CT still uses an x-ray beam. For bone lesions (non-marrow related) CT is still the best. The patient is placed in a magnetic field; no beam is placed through the patient. T1 Weighted = fat is bright white and fluid is dark. Short TR and Short TE. T2 Weighted = water is bright white (T2 = H2O). Long TR and Long TE. T1 – short TR and TE, used to see fat. T2 – long TR and TE, used to see water. So, for example if you want to see the water content of intervertebral discs, or do a cerebrospinal fluid evaluation you wouild do a T2 MRI. When discs degenerate the first thing they do is dehydrate. They will appear dark on the T2 scan. Large patients 300+ lbs. Aneurysm Clips Intraocular foreign bodies Subcutaneous metal shards Pacemaker/defibriliators Implanted neurostimulators Prostetic heart valves Cochlear implants Tattooed eyeliner 1 st Trimester pregnancy NOT Breast Implants! Spiculated periosteal reaction (AKA Sunburst) – most common is osteosarcoma. Lab picture – Punched out lesion. Widespread (generalized) Osteopenia Osteoporosis Osteomalacia Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) Neoplasm – Multiple Myeloma and Leukemia. Ratio 35% Osteoid and 65% Mineral. Patients with osteoporosis have NORMAL serum calcium levels.
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Hypophosphatemia is another cause of osteomalacia due to reduced levels of phosphorous in the blood. Primary HPT – caused by tumor in one of the parathyroid glands this raises serum calcium levels. Secondary HPT – due to kidney disease this lowers serum calcium levels. Major cause of generalized osteoporosis. Hyperthyroidism Pregnancy Scurvy – vitamin C deficiency. Calcium deficiency Major causes of regional osteoporosis. Reflex Sympatahetic Dystrophy Syndrome (RSD) Transient Regional Osteoporosis. Transietn Osteoporosis of the hip. Rickets has a paintbrush border. (Also on Lab) Chondrocalcinosis – cartilage calcification in the meniscus of the knee. (Also on Lab) Calcium Pyrophosphatedihydrate Crystal Deposition Disease (CPPD) – calcium depostion happens mostly in primary HPT. Brown Tumors are associated primarily with primary HPT.
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RADD 2711 Hard Tissue 1 Review Questions - Hard Tissue 1...

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