RADD 2711 Various Conditions with Detailed Information

RADD 2711 Various Conditions with Detailed Information -...

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RADD 2711 OSTEOPOROSIS 3 Types 1. Generalized : bone density decreased in majority of skeleton, especially spine, pelvis, and proximal long bones; most commonly caused by age and postmenopausal status 2. Regionalized : confined to an area such as a limb (part or whole); can occur after immobilization of a body part 3. Localized : focal losses of bone density affecting a small area; usually the result of local disease such as inflammation, neoplasm (cancer), or infection GENERALIZED General Info Composition of bone is normal, just not enough of it Osteoclasts dissolve bone faster that osteoblasts make it Age, postmenopausal status, and lack of activity are most common causes → Increased activity and stress on bones will boost osteoblasts Other causes include steroids, heparin, and hydrocortisone Affects 28 million people in U.S. (women 4:1) 1.3 million fx per year over age 45 Costs $3.8 billion/year After age 35 lose 3% of bone/year (1% cortical; 2% trabecular) → Postmenopausal women lose 6%/year 1/3 of women over 65 will develop vertebral body fx secondary to the disease Clinical Features Females observable in 50’s – 60’s; men in 60’s – 70’s → Ratio equalizes after age 80 Usually asymptomatic until fx occur (pathological) Most common fx sites are spine, hip, and distal radius → Hip fx have 20% mortality rate w/in 1 year; 300,000 fx/year → Distal radius usually a Colles fx (wrist in ext.) Many spinal compression fx go undiagnosed bcs no symptoms Predominantly found in the axial skeleton and proximal end of long bones of appendicular skeleton 1
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RADD 2711 Pathological Causes Hyperparathyroidism (increases blood Ca) Hyperthyroidism Cushing’s disease Pregnancy Diabetes mellitus Decreased estrogen Scurvy (Vit. C deficiency) Calcium deficiency Vit. D deficiency (need to absorb Ca) Rickets Malnutrition Alcoholism and liver disease Anemia Osteogenesis Imperfecta Roentgen Signs Increased radiolucency (osteopenia); takes 30% to 50% to see on film Cortical thinning → “pencil-thin” cortex stands out against surrounding soft tissue → May see endosteal scalloping in early stages Altered trabecular patterns → As some are resorbed, others stand out more; eventually looks washed out → “preferential resorption” of horizontal (transverse) trabeculae will occur first and/or faster than that of weight-bearing trabeculae → May give a corduroy appearance (pseudo-hemangiomatous) on multiple segments Fracture deformities of vertebrae → Wedged vertebra: loss of ant. body height; most common in midthoracic and thoracolumbar; multiple segments causes increased kyphosis → Vertebra plana: “pancake vertebra”; loss of total body height; uncommon in osteoporosis Biconcave deformity: “fish vertebra”; centralized depression of endplates caused by a mechanical pressure of nucleus pulposus Other fx deformities
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course RADD 2711 taught by Professor Melissaloschiavo during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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RADD 2711 Various Conditions with Detailed Information -...

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