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RADD 2711 Lecture 3 Summer 2011 - GUIDELINES FOR TAKING...

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GUIDELINES FOR TAKING X- RAYS – Y & R – p. 683 Probable indicators trauma, unexplained weight loss, night pain… Possible indicators – > 50yoa, drug or alcohol abuse, corticosteroid abuse… NON-indicators – patient education, routine screening, pre-employment status…
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Imaging Modalities
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CONVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY
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PLAIN FILM RADIOGRAPHY HISTORY: 1895 – Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered “x-rays” 1901 – First Nobel prize in physics
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PLAIN FILM RADIOGRAPHY Most frequent imaging modality to evaluate skeletal system 5 radiographic densities – air, fat, water, bone, metal Consider radiation safety Chronological comparison
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PLAIN FILM RADIOGRAPHY Limited diagnostic sensitivity… 30 – 50% loss of bone density
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PLAIN FILM RADIOGRAPHY ADVANTAGES: Readily available Relatively inexpensive Non-invasive
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PLAIN FILM RADIOGRAPHY DISADVANTAGES: Lack of soft tissue discrimination Decreased sensitivity in detecting osseous lesions Technical artifacts Ionizing radiation
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CONVENTIONAL TOMOGRAPHY
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CONVENTIONAL TOMOGRAPHY Visualize a selected anatomical layer Blurs out structures above and below Take sequential films
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CONVENTIONAL TOMOGRAPHY ADVANTAGES: Eliminate overlying structures DISADVANTAGES: High dose radiation because : multiple exposures required Long exposure time…patient motion
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TOMOGRAM
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TOMOGRAM
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DEXA SCAN
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DEXA scanner
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Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA/DXA) 2 x-ray beams with different energies aimed at bone Evaluates bone density Quantitative DEXA SCAN
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T score and Z score Score: > -1 = normal -1 to -2.5 = osteopenia < -2.5 = osteoporosis DEXA SCAN
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CONTRAST STUDY
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