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DIAG 2735 Exam 2 Review #1 - Disease Urinary Calculi...

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Disease Causes Can Result in S/S Glu Ket Prot Urinary Calculi Formation Males: 20's Obstuction: hydronephrosis Visible on X-ray Kidney pain radiating in groin may exist w/o crystals History of stones, crystals in UA Hematuria, pain on passing thru urethra F/ Ca++ w/ Oxylates Staghorn Calculi Fills up renal pelvis and calyces resembles deer antlers Aminoacidurias: metabolic pathway block deficiency in renal tub. Fxn Phenylketonuria Absence of liver enz. Phenylalanine hydroxylase Phenyl. Not converted to tyrosine Urine smells musty Phenyl. Levels rise Alkaptanuria Phenyl. & tyrosine converted to homogentisic acid turns specimen black homogentisic acid is missing Observed in diapers Tyrosinuria excessive phenyl. Congentital: retardation loss of phosphate X X X Crystals: fine & silky Liver disease Non-Congenital: Liver Failure/disease Hepatomegaly Low birth rate infants liver palp. Abnorm. Jaundice Alcoholism/hepatitis Maple Syrup Urine Disease leucine, isoleucine & valine --> ketoacids urine smells like maple syrup Ketoacids can't turn to fatty acids neonatal vomiting, seizures, stupor Ketoacids elevated in bl. And excreted hypoglycemia Cystinuria Wilson's Disease Only to form crystals Faulty resorption of 4 AA Common/benign Cystinosis Faulty resorption of 10 AA Retarded pt.'s Part of Fanconi's Synd. Under 10 yrs. Age Adrenal Disorders: Hypofunction: Addison's Disease Hyperfunction: Adrenal virilism Cushing's Synd. Hyperaldosteronism Inc. Na++ retention Disease Causes Can Result in S/S Glu Ket Prot Pheochromocytoma K+ depletion Anemia: Inc. Urobilinogen Blood Loss Anemia: Chronic Bl. Loss anemia when stored Fe is depleted Iron Deficiency Anemia blood loss Megaloblastic Anemia f/ B12 or Folate def. Pernicious Anemia Aplastic Anemia Hemolytic Anemia: Often lead to Gall Stones Intrinsic Form membrane, metabolic, Hb disorder involvement Hereditary Spherocytosis: N. Europeans Disease Causes Can Result in S/S Glu Ket Prot Destabalizes RBC Extrinsic Form B12 Deficiency Folate Deficiency No folate for 3-6 months = Anemia Polycythemia Inc HCT w/ Norm MCV Absolute Polycythemia Polycythemia Vera cancerous overproduction of all bl. Cell types LEUKEMIA: f/ malignant degeneration of WBC stem cells Disease Causes Can Result in S/S Glu Ket Prot LYMPHOMA: Hodgkin's Lymphoma Pt. ages of 15-35 and >50; more in men; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Coagulopathies Hemophilia A lack of factor VIII (80% time) Hemophilia B lack of factor IX diseminated microvascular thrombi formation Vitamin K deficiency Disease Causes Can Result in S/S Glu Ket Prot Circulating Anticoagulants PLATELET DISORDERS: Drugs, bone marrow infiltration, epistaxis Petechiae, ecchymosis, mucosal bleeding Thrombocytopenia Acute potentiall fatal No Neuro changes HEMATOLOGY: Description Increased Decreased White Cell Count Leukocytosis, i.e. Leukemia Leukopenia, i.e. Flu, Hepatitis, Mono 55% Neutrophils 35% Lymphocytes <8% Monocytes 1-4% Eosinophils Inc. Neutrophils 0-1% Basophils Red Blood Cell Count Polycythemia Anemia Fluid overload Hematocrit Bl. Seperated f/ plasma Polycythemia, anemia Norm levels: 34-45%
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