DIAG 2735 Laboratory Values

DIAG 2735 Laboratory Values - A CLINICAL OVERVIEW OF BLOOD...

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A CLINICAL OVERVIEW OF BLOOD CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS AND URINALYSIS Amy K. Kubat H.B.Sc., D.C. William G. Kessel B.A. D.C. Appendix 1
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BLOOD CHEMISTRY Acid Phosphatase Normal ranges: adult/elderly 0.11 – 0.60 U/L (37 ° C) 0.5 - 2.0 Bodansky units 1.0 - 5.0 King-Armstrong units child 8.6 – 12.6 U/mL(30 ° C) The total acid phosphatase and specifically, the PAP isoenzyme test are primarily used to diagnose and stage prostatic carcinoma and to monitor the efficacy of treatment. Since the greatest amount of acid phosphatase is contained within the lysosomes of prostate cells, any disease that affects the prostate tissue will destroy those cells and the lysosomal contents will spill into the bloodstream and become detectable. Elevated levels of acid phosphatase are commonly found in patients with prostatic cancer that has metastasized beyond the capsule to other parts of the body, especially bone. However, this level is rarely elevated in the early stages of the disease and the degree of elevation indicates the extent of the disease. Lesser amounts of acid phosphatase also exists in the lysosomes of the liver, spleen, platelets, and blood and bone marrow cells, therefore, any diseases that destroy these cells has the potential to elevate the acid phosphatase levels in the blood. Increased acid phosphatase: Prostatic carcinoma Benign prostatic hypertrophy Prostatitis Multiple myeloma Paget’s disease Hyperthyroidism Metastasis to the bone Liver disease – such as cirrhosis Blood Acetone Normal range : 0 – 10 mg% 0.3 – 2 mg% varies with laboratory When the body is unable to utilize its supply of glucose, or glucose isn’t available to the body, it will attempt to metabolize fats in a process known as beta-oxidation. The body cannot properly metabolize fats without carbohydrates and as a result, ketone bodies are produced. Acetone, acetoacetic acid and betahydroxybutyric acid are collectively known as ketone bodies. Ketones have an acid pH and when there levels increase in the body (ketosis) they tend to produce a serious fall in pH and a resultant acidosis. Elevation of blood acetone: Diabetes Mellitus – this is the most common cause of significantly elevated serum acetone levels. Along with increased acetone diabetes also tends to elevate blood glucose, azotemia may be present (increased BUN, serum creatine, serum phosphate, serum potassium; decreased serum calcium), blood pH is decreased, WBC are usually increased, and various urine changes occur (increased sugar, ketones, proteins and casts). When a Appendix 2
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diabetic becomes seriously insulin deficient, one of the telltale signs is a sweet smell of acetone on the breath. Starvation - utilization of fat reserves. Special diets
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DIAG 2735 Laboratory Values - A CLINICAL OVERVIEW OF BLOOD...

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