Wk 2 Routine_Urinalysis, cell types

Wk 2 Routine_Urinalysis, cell types - Routine Urinalysis...

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Routine Urinalysis
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Collection Methods Random catch Here’s a cup, pee and come back sucka Early morning catch High specific gravity, more likely to have (+)s Midstream catch Helps to get rid of epithelial cells to look for pathology Midstream clean catch Catheterization Suprapubic aspiration 24 hr collection
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Routine Urinalysis Screens for kidney and urinary tract disease, helps detect systemic or metabolic diseases Elements of Routine Urinalysis Physical exam Chemical exam Microscopic exam
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Physical exam Color Should be yellow or straw color Clarity Should be clear (read text through specimen) Specific Gravity = [ ] of solutes compared to water 1.005- 1.035
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Sources of color change in Urine Red and Red-Brown Most common color change b/c of Menses Hematuria Hemoglobinuria Myoglobinuria Beets
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Sources of color change in Urine Black Hemoglobin Melanin Iron compounds Methyldopa for HBP, Levodopa Parkinson’s Homogentisic acid Drugs when they get eliminated
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Sources of color change in Urine Blue Rx Contrast media Indicans Chlorophyll
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Sources of color change in Urine Orange Highly concentrated Urobilinogen Drugs Vit C Carrots
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Sources of color change in Urine Green-Brown Bile pigments Bilirubin Brown foam
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Clarity Examination Clear Hazy Cloudy Turbid
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Clear Fingerprint Text Normal specimen is clear
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Hazy Not necessarily pathologic Difficult to see through Finger Amorphous sediments
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Cloudy Specimen is impossible to see through Pathology Microscopic exam a must Leukocytes Bacteria Proteins Crystals Kidney stones
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Turbid Cloudy with visible precipitates Blood clots Fecal material (from fistula) Clumps of pus Small calculi Mucus (lower urinary tract inflammation)
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Chyluria Lymph in specimen Obstruction of lymph flow or rupture of lymph vessels in urinary system Late stage filariasis (worms) Abdominal lymph node enlargement Tumors, infections Specimen may be normal, opalescent, or milky depending on amount present
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Lipiduria Result from nephrotic syndromes Triglycerides Cholesterol Oval fat bodies Major skeletal trauma (exposed marrow) Fracture of long bone Pelvic fracture
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Urine Volume 600-2000 ml per day Diuresis: production of urine Polyuria: lots of urine Oligouria: decreased urine Anuria: lack of urine
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Increased Production Diuresis Diabetes Diuretics Caffeine Alcohol RX High protein diet High salt diet
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Decreased Production Oligouria Dehydration Decreased intake of fluids Vomiting Diarrhea Sweating Decreased GFR - decrease of filtered blood Azotemia (retention of nitrogenous wastes NPN: amino acids, uric acid, creatinine, creatin, urea, and ammonia)
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Wk 2 Routine_Urinalysis, cell types - Routine Urinalysis...

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