Cranium, Ventricles and Meninges
3 fossa- ant, middle, posterior
3 layers of meninges- dura arachnoid, pia
3 spaces-epidural, subdural, sub arachnoid
Ependymal cells: filter CSF out of blood.
CSF: protects brain and NS
pH balance, mechanical cushion, gravity/flotation, nutrient/waste exchange
then resorption in spinal cord.
Volume is 150cc.
20cc per hour
- Common neurological symptom.
Benign and may be bad.
Brain has no nociceptors.
Sensory nerves are V IX X
intolerance to noise and
Same as classic but also
Same as classic
Intense, stabbing, tearing,
stress or alcohol
Behind one eye
Acute trauma, hemorrhage, infarct, artery dissection, venous thrombosis, hydrocephalus, low
CSF pressure, toxic/metabolic, meningitis, abscess, tumor, disorder of eye, scalp, teeth, ears, sinuses (CN
Temporal Arteritis (Giant cell) aka Circumnodule Arteritis
Elderly, inflammation of temporal arteries (enlarge and firm) and other arteries.
Classic sign is
It’s a Chronic Granulomatous Inflammation.
Increased intracranial pressure
- Causes neurological deficits due to compression, destruction, herniation.
Signs and Symptoms
Cushing’s triad (increase BP, decreased HR, arrhythmia/respiratory
Direct translation from findings
Involves the whole brain (Cushing’s triad, headaches, changes in
Brain injury on opposite side of impact
Concussion- post concussive syndrome
Contusion- leaking blood into the brain, permanent neurological deficits
Laceration- tissue is torn, permanent deficits
Sev. Hours later
From whiplash trauma
Days to months
Sheer force, Trivial forgotten injury
Basilar or ant, mid, post
Tiny distal brain arteries
Chronic HBP, berry aneurysm