PATH 2542 Kidneys - blood circulation immune response...

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Kidneys A structurally complex organ that has evolved to subserve a # of important functions: a. Excretion of waste products of metabolism (urine) b. Regulation of the body’s concentration of water and salt c. Maintenance of appropriate acid balance of plasma (pH) d. Secretion of some hormones: Renin (regulates BP), Erythropoeitin (promotion of RBC’s in the bone marrow, if you have a disease of the kidneys it will lead to anemia), Prostaglandins (mediators of inflammation) 4 Major compartments Glomerulus (cortex) Extremely permeable to water, but NOT to albumins, blood proteins Filtration of fluids b. Tubules (medulla) c. Interstitial tissue d. Vessels In the beginning of disease it’s important to determine which compartment is involved. Glomerular diseases are immunologically related. Tubules are associated with infection or intoxication. Glomerulonephritis: Etiology: unkown Pathogenesis (3 types) 1. Circulating immune complex deposition a. Typer III hypersensitivity reaction (appearance of antigen in
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Unformatted text preview: blood circulation, immune response produces antibodies ( outside kidneys ), leads to vasculitis) 2. Anti-GBM (Glomerular Basement Membrane) a. Basement membrane is considered foreign by the immune system, leads to production of antibodies that destroy GBM, Type II hypersensitive reaction Antibody mediated 3. Heymann a. Attack on the antibodies by the visceral epithelial cells (podocytes) Juxtaglomerular cells sense pressure on afferent arteriole, produce/release Renin and it leads to an increase in BP Podocytes (visceral epithelial cells) have filtration slits and filtrate the primary urine Parietal epithelial cells Nephritic syndrome Is manifested clinically by:- Hematuria (with red blood casts)- Azotemia – biochemical abnormality that refers to the elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine which is associated with reduced GFR-Uremia – is a clinical sign, patient feels it-Hypertension...
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course PATH 2542 taught by Professor Markamos during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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PATH 2542 Kidneys - blood circulation immune response...

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