PATH 2542 Lab Notes 1 - Pathology II Lab Urinary Tract:...

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Pathology II Lab Urinary  Tract:  Kidney  (2)  Urethra    Ureters  (2)  Bladder Urolithiasis - AKA - kidney stones -  refers  to calculus  formation  at any  level  of the                                                            urinary  system  –> NON- inflammatory  diseas e.  Calculus  =stones      Lithon  = stones     Iasis  = non- inflammatory  diseas e  The  incidence  of formation  of stones  in the  bladder  in the  US  is 10%.  There  is an  overlap  of symptom s  with stones  and  back  pain.  It is more  com m on  in males  than  females  and  in caucasians.  The  cause  is unknown  (idiopathetic). Pathog en e sis - associated  with the  increas e  in concentration  of stone  constituents  in the  urine  that exce ed s  their   solubility in the  solute . Called  super  or  hyper  saturation.  Hyper  saturation  (AKA: Supersaturation)   Prevention - keep  concentration  of constituents  low or  take  in a  huge  amount  of fluids. -If a patient has lower lumbar pain look for something very radio -opaque outside the spine as possible kidney stones.   -Any calcium containing salts are always radio -opaque. Radio -opaque  very dense and appears white on x -ray.   Radiolucent - not dense and appears dark. ALL calcium containing tissue is radiopathic.   TQ  Bones are radiopathic. Air in  lungs is radiolucent. Chemical components of stones: • 72-75% - calcium oxalate or a combination of calcium oxalate and calcium                          phosphate   TQ • 10-15% - magnesium and ammonium phosphate • These stones are formed only in the alkaline environment of the urine. Others stones require      an acid environment. These are known as “triple” stones. These formed in alkaline        environment. •  6-23% kidney stones consists of  uric acid salts. These  stones, if they are pure, are  radiolucent and                  are  not visual on x - ray.  TQ • .5-4% - cystine - it is pretty rare  NETTER picture of Cystine kidney stones. Caramel colored. 1
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NORMAL urine is a weak acidic. Pre-disposing Factors:   READ IN BOOK for question on test re: Prostate Cancer   Urinary obstruction  Enlarged  prostate  – swelling  will decrea s e  urine  flow thru urethra  – “hesitancy”  is the  inability to begin   50  %  (almost  75%)  of males  over  65  have  an  enlarged  prostate. Benign  com e s  from  periurethral  zone:  slows  urine  almost  immediately
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course PATH 2542 taught by Professor Markamos during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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PATH 2542 Lab Notes 1 - Pathology II Lab Urinary Tract:...

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