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Unformatted text preview: Read about: congestive heart failure, MS, renal tumor Urinary system-kidneys-ureters-urethra-bladder Urolithiasis Aka kidney stones Calicilus formation @ any level of urinary system Is non-inflammatory disease Affects 10% of population More common in men Etiology unknown Pathogenesis an increase in concentration of stone constituents so exceeds solubility in fluid = hypersaturation Chemical components of stones 75% calcium oxalate and CaPO4 (from hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis, or in vegetarians) 10-15% of Magnesium Ammonium PO4, called triple stone made in alkaline urine that occurs during infection ( proteus vulgaris ) radio opaque 6-23% from uric acid salts are radiolucent. Hyperuricemia increase in uric acid in blood 0.4-5% from cystine from abnormal AA filtration Predisposing factors 1. urinary obstruction a. enlarged prostate (prostatitis). Prostate zones: central, transitional, periurethral, peripheral. - Benign prostatic hyperplasia (aka nodular hyperplasia of prostate gland) develops in transitional and periurethral zones, early symptom is hesistancy- cannot begin urination. Most common of prostate tumors. - Prostate Cancer develops in peripheral zone. No compression of urethra b. tumor c. diverticulum pouch of wall d. pregnancy baby can compress ureters damage to kidneys, compress bile duct gall stones, compress arteries/veins vericose veins 2. epithelial injury a. increases concentration of epithelial cells within bladder/pelvis b. creates a nidus c. infection d. vit. A and vit B6 deficiency e. ischemia necrosis 3. changes in urine a. dehydration b. hypercalciuria, hyperphosphaturia c. oxaliuria ( dietary or metabolic defect) d. uric acid and urate excess gout or leukemia e. abnormal reabsorption of cystine by kidneys stone types staghorn calculus 99% of time made of triple stones from infection of UT multiple small calculi, results in hydronephrosis hydronephrosis distention of kidney pelvis with atrophy of kidney parenchyma due to disruption of urine outflow, caused most commonly by urethral colic- very painful- unilateral pain from back to ipsilateral genetalia- micro/macro amounts of blood in urine hematuria- can lead to kidney death in 20 days if not treated Acute Cystitis acute inflammation of urinary bladder from infection (intestinal ecoli.) ecoli. , also causes pyelonephritis and acute nephritis predominantly female pathology caused by yeast infections, medications, infections, etc. Yeast infection aka candida albicans, monila, candidosis, monilasis treated with drinking buttermilk, or no-sugar-added yogurt predisposing factors: 1. decrease in temperature in pelvic area 2. acute ovarian inflammation 3. catheders 4. keeping urine in bladder clinical manifestations of acute cystitis 1. dysuria 2. increase frequency of urination 3. lower abdominal pain (below umbilicus) 4. hematuria (not always a sign)...
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- Winter '11