PATH 2542 Lab Notes (Midterm and Final)

PATH 2542 Lab Notes (Midterm and Final) - Pathology 2...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Pathology 2 Lab (Midterm) Urinary Tract Diseases - Bladder - Kidney (2) - Ureter (2) - Urethra Urolithiasis - stone (calculis) formation at any level of the urinary system - increased concentration of stone constituents in urine - 10% of US population; mostly men Predisposing Factors for Urolithiasis: 1. Urinary Obstruction - enlarged prostate - tumor - diverticulum 2. Epithelial Injury - infection - vitamin A deficiency - necrosis 3. Changes in Urine - dehydration - hypercalcemia - hyperphosphaturia - oxaluria (dietary or metabolic defect) - uric acid & orate excess - gout - leukemia Staghorn Calculus* - 99% made mostly of Mg+ phosphate - may result in hydronephrosis - expansion of the renal pelvis with accompanying necrosed parenchyma and obstruction of urine outflow) - most common cause of obstruction is renal colic or urietal colic Renal / Urethral Colic* - when a stone results in obstruction of the urethral wall and causes urethral wall contraction 1
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
- extremely painthl - unilateral pain - ipsilateral pain into genitals* - blood in urine Acute Cystitis - inflammation of urinary bladder - mostly females - severe UTI - STD's (gonorrhea, chiamydia, most common) - E. coli - yeast infection Predisposing Factors for Acute Cystitis - super - cooling of pelvic area (sifting on cold stones in winter) - ice (in areas of ovaries, kidneys and pelvis) - foreign bodies in bladder - instrumentation (catheter) - urine delay Signs & Symptoms of Acute Cystitis* - dysuria (painfül urination) - increased frequency of urination - lower abdominal and suprapubic pain - hematuria Respiratory Tract Diseases Atelectasis (aka collapse) - loss of lung volume due to incomplete expansion of air spaces 4 Categories of Atelectasis* 1. Obstructive (aka Resorption, Absorption)* - due to obstruction of the airways - total pressure in that lung is lower than atmospheric pressure - rnediastinum will deviate towards lower pressure or toward the involved lung - chest deformity is common - reversible - mediastinum is composed of the heart, large vessels, trachea, esophagus and dorsal spine - Caused by: - aspiration of foreign bodies - excessive secretion of exudates within smaller bronchi 2
Background image of page 2
- tumor of any organ; heart problem 2. Compressive (aka Passive, Relaxation)* - results from compression of lung tissue - results in pleurism and accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity - mediastinum deviates away from involved lung - reversible - pneumothorax (see below) - traniatic (hole in chest; knife) - Caused by: - cardiac failure - neoplastic effusions - tbc (jrneumothorax) 3. Patchy (aka Microatelectasis) - when there is a loss of pulmonary surfactant - Respiratory Distress Syndrome 4. Contraction -replacement of normal lung tissue with fibrous lung tissue -interstitial lung disease -irreversible -when the lung tissue is replaced by scar tissue -irreversible Pneumothorax* -air in the pleural cavity -causes immediate lung collapse -#1 cause of tuberculosis -#2 cause of emphysema -#3 cause of interstitial lung disease
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course PATH 2542 taught by Professor Markamos during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

Page1 / 13

PATH 2542 Lab Notes (Midterm and Final) - Pathology 2...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online