PATH 2542 Lecture Notes - Final Exam Review 1

PATH 2542 Lecture Notes - Final Exam Review 1 - .Holds150ml...

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Hydrocephalus -  Accumulation of CSF within the ventricular system of the brain. Holds 150 ml  of CSF.  CSF is produced by choroids plexus in all 4 ventricles. The amount of CSF produced in 24  hours is 500ml  -  CSF leaves the ventricular system as it is produced. CSF moves from lateral ventricle  through the interventricular foramen of Monroe into the 3rd ventricle then through Sylvius Aquaduct  into the 4th ventricle. There are two openings foramen of von Luscka (lateral) and the foramen of  margendie <ONE> (median apperature) so CSF flows outside of the ventricles into the cisterna magna  which is the space around the cerebellum and then it goes down into subarachnoid space (this space is  between dura and pia matter) of brain and cord. Brain flows in CSF and is absorbed in special area in  parietal bone at arachnoid granulations. CSF flows through the granulations into the superior saggital  sinus – which goes along the sagittal suture and it is the main collector of venous blood in the brain.   KNOW THE CIRCULATION FOR THIS!!       KNOW WELL!!!! - There are two forms of hydrocephalus: 1 st  - associated with increased production  (this can be a result of a benign tumor of the choroid  plexus tissue which produces more CSF thus) or decreased absorption  communicating  hydrocephalus (this is usually the result of inflammation of the meninges = leptomeningitis  (dura mater swelling)). 2 nd  - obstruction  -  tumor or hemorrhagic stroke -  prevents normal circulation of CSF. It is called  non - communicating hydrocephalus -  this is  within the ventricular system.   Fart - both result in increased ICP -  patient will experience – 3 signs: ( 1. headaches,  2. nausea/vomiting, or 3.   papilledema (swelling of optic disk). These are primary manifestations of  brain tumor.   NETTER picture  Headaches -  Only 18% of all headaches may be treated by chiropractic. There are ~ 400 causes for a  headache. –  3rd type of hydrocephalus is hydrocephalus ex vacuo (from the bag)  -  disappearance of neurons  -  brain  mass is diminished. There is an increase in the space around the brain and it becomes filled with CSF.  350 ml of CSF  -  it is compensatory, known as normal pressure hydrocephalus. It does  not  result in the  increase in ICP. People lose their memory due to loss of brain cells – the fluid that replaces the tissue,  does NOT hold memory.  So this is not caused by excessive production or decreased absorption.
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Treatment depends on: Age of patient.  Babies have six fontenelles.  First two months of life, 5 fontanelles close – except the  FRONTAL, which may take up to 18 months.  Measure both sides of the head to see if hydrocephalus 
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