PATH 2542 Lecture Notes - Final Exam Review 2

PATH 2542 Lecture Notes - Final Exam Review 2 - Pathology...

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Pathology II Lecture Notes Final Exam CNS Trauma Epi – above Sub – underneath surface ½ million people a year have CNS Trauma 80% die from trauma 20% remain disabled Three major problems associated with CNS Trauma: 1. Epidural Hematoma 2. Subdural Hematoma 3. Brain Parenchymal traumatic injury 1. Epidural Hematoma *rupture of the arteries (meningeal) between brain dura mater and cranial bones Blood in the “non-existent space” May result in Fx of cranial bones Acute – brain and body cannot adapt May lead to hydrocephalus “non-communicating” Subfalcine Herniation {Mild} Herniation of the cingulated gyrus Compression against falx cerebri Compression of anterior cerebral artery Transtentorial “uncal” Herniation Compression of free margin of temporal lobe of the brain against the tentorium cerebelli Leads to compression of the posterior cerebral artery Compression of the nucleus of CN III – oculomotor ipsilateral pupil dilation and CN III Palsy Cerebellar-Tonsilar Herniation {most serious} Inflammation of cerebellar tonsils into foramen magnum Leads to compression of the brain stem Cardio-pulmonary arrests develops = DEATH Arnold-Chiari Duret Hemorrhage – brain stem and mid-brain Clinical Manifestations Develop within 20-30 minutes Loss of consciousness
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Headache due to increase intracranial pressure 2. Subdural Hematoma *rupture of the bridging veins Develops in the subarachnoid space Sudden change of the velocity of the brain with respect to the cranial vault Prognosis can be either good or bad Intoxication of neurons of cortex Causes: falling, MVC, sports, boxing (50-60%) Predisposes patient to subarachnoid hemorrhagic stroke 3. Parenchymal Brain Injury {traumatic} 1 st step is concussion Syndrome characterized by immediate and transient impairment of neurological functions secondary to mechanical forces (functional changes) 2 manifestations: o Loss of consciousness o Retrograde amnesia permanent loss of memory for events immediately prior to, during and immediately after trauma *functional impairment of the reticular formation of the brain Contusion Hemorrhage into superficial brain parenchyma due to blunt trauma 2 types: Coup – head is not mobile, but the force is Contra-coup – head is mobile, but the force is not Laceration “Most Serious” Real rupture/tear of the brain tissue or blood vessels May be in brain parenchyma or sub-arachnoid space Brain swelling is present Basilar Skull Fx Damage to nerves and vessels Opening gate for infection (i.e. meningitis and encephalitis) Manifestations: Pre-orbital subcutaneous hemorrhage Rhinorrhea – leakage of CSF from nose Battle’s sign – post auricular hematoma Otorrhea – temporal/occipital skull Fx
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Rheumatoid Arthritis Rapidly progressing Systemic, chronic, inflammatory disease that affect primarily the joints and
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course PATH 2542 taught by Professor Markamos during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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PATH 2542 Lecture Notes - Final Exam Review 2 - Pathology...

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