PATH 2542 Lecture Notes - Final Exam Review 3

PATH 2542 Lecture Notes - Final Exam Review 3 - Pathology...

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Pathology II Extra Lecture Notes Winter 2007 Diabetic Nephropathy: 1. Glomerular lesions (damage to glomeruli) o Thickening of glomerular basement membrane o Diffuse glomerular sclerosis (diffuse increase of mesangial matrix, mesangial cell proliferation) o Nodular glomerularsclerosis i. Characterized by Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions 1. Ball like deposits of a laminated matrix within the mesangium 2. Renal Vascular Lesions o Hyaline arteriosclerosis of both afferent and efferent arterioles o Atherosclerosis 3. Pyelonephritis o Often with necrotizing papillitis Pathology of the lower esophageal sphincter: Primary Achalasia: Aparastalsis Absence of relaxation of muscles of the lower esophageal sphincter Increased resting tone of the lower esophageal sphincter No known etiology Secondary Achalasia: Sometimes associated with degeneration of the myenteric plexus or a ganglia of the vagal nerve Happens when invasion of the body by protozoa (Trypanosoma cruzi) Chaga’s Disease: Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi Dysphagia (problems swallowing) Hiatal Heria: Characterized by separation of the diaphragmatic crura and widening of the space between the muscular crura and the esophygeal wall. Sliding hernia (aka axial hernia) Paraesopygeal (aka rolling or non-axial ) hernia Sliding Hernia: Bell like shape Most common (90-95%) May be found in up to 20% of the population Stomach is pulled up through the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity Heart burn Rolling Hernia:
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Stomach gangrene eventually (venous infarction) Zenker Diverticulum: Locates above the level of the upper esophageal sphincter. o Asperation Traction diverticulum: (aka mid-esophageal diverticulum) Result of inflammation of mediastinal lymph nodes Not clinically significant Epiphenic diverticulum: May be very large (3-4cm) Can result in aspiration Mallory-Weiss Syndrome: Development in Mellory-Weiss tear Mainly in alcoholics o Caused by wretching Longitudinal tears of the esophageal mucosa 5-10% of cases may result in bleeding from esophagus Esophageal hemorrhage is difficult to stop RARE: tear so deep that esophagus ruptures FATAL Barret Esophagus: Is defined as a replacement of the normal distal stratified squamous mucosa by metaplastic columnar epithelium containing goblet cells. Result of long term heartburn
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course PATH 2542 taught by Professor Markamos during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

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PATH 2542 Lecture Notes - Final Exam Review 3 - Pathology...

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