PATH 2542 Lecture Notes - Midterm Exam Review 1

PATH 2542 Lecture Notes - Midterm Exam Review 1 - Pathology...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Pathology II Kidneys are retroperitoneal at around the level of the 12th rib. Right is a little lower; Kidney has a capsule (containing nociceptors) around it. It is painful when it becomes distended if the kidney is inflamed. Dorsal lumbar pain, it consists of the cortex (containing the glomeruli) and the medulla (pyramids) which are both part of the parenchyme . Parenchyme vs. Renal Pelvis = the two major components of the kidney. The cortex has the glomeruli. The kidney is a structurally complex organ that has evolved to serve a number of important functions: • Excretion of the waste products of metabolism • Regulation of the body's concentration of water and salt (aldosterone reabsorbs H20, Na, spits out K and H) • Maintenance of appropriate acid balance of plasma (spits out H) • Secretion of some hormones: rennin - regulation of blood pressure in body, erythropoietin - to promote formation and production of red blood cell, and prostaglandins - formation of various hormones and neurotransmitters, mediators of inflammation The kidney may be divided into four compartments: in the parenchyme (includes the cortex and the medulla). • Glomeruli, in cortex, filtration of blood (juxtaglomeruli cell) control of BP -> renin • Channels- collecting system- tubules • Interstitial tissues • Vessels of the kidney 1. Usually kidney disorders start in one compartment (primary) and then it develops into all the compartments <glomeruli> (immunologically mediated). 2. The compartments are vulnerable to different causes of injury. Glomeruli problem is usually immunopathological (probably type III which has to do with blood vessels). Pathology of the tubules and interstitial tissues is due to bacterial infection by toxins. **** Glomerulo nephritis , kidney inflammation but particularly pathology of the glomeruli (immuonologically mediated). Entering and leaving the glomeruli are arterioles. The arteriole that enters the glomerulus is the afferent arteriole and the blood leaves via the efferent arteriole. Blood flows into the glomerulus which is in Bowman's capsule, the capsule carries the filtrate into the tubules. From inside to outside the arterioles are composed of endothelial cells, basement membrane, and visceral epithelial cells with podocytes. Endothelial cells have holes in-between them called pseudo fenestration . The membrane is the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and it is on top of the endothelial cells and on top are visceral epithelial cells (AKA: podocytes). Once in the Bowman's capsule, the cells that line them are called parietal epithelial cells (so, visceral vs. parietal epithelial cells). Juxtaglomerular cells are located near the (at the beginning) afferent arteriole and they control the BP in the arterioles and GFR Because blood will only diffuse out at optimum BP. If BP drops, it leads to the secretion of Renin, which raises BP. Formation of antibodies against self.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course PATH 2542 taught by Professor Markamos during the Winter '11 term at Life Chiropractic College West.

Page1 / 25

PATH 2542 Lecture Notes - Midterm Exam Review 1 - Pathology...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online