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STOMACH AND DUODENUM DISEASES. SOME ANATOMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL DATA. Stomach locates in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. There are the following regions of the stomach: - fundus; - cardia (contains gastro-esophageal sphincter); - corpus (body); - antrum; - pylorus (contains the pyloric sphincter, which regulates movement of bolus from the stomach with its acid environment to the duodenum with its alkaline environment). Internal surface of the stomach contains a lot of infoldings of mucosa and submucosa (a.k.a. rugae ), whose main function is the increase of its contact with food. Stomach mucosa is lined with tall columnar epithelial cells without goblet (mucus producing) cells between them. The presence of the latter in the gastric epithelial layer is abnormal and represent a sign of serious pathology. In the depth of the stomach wall there are a lot of pits, which contain various gastric glands. They consist of the following cells: mucous cells . Their main function is mucus production. The mucus is extremely important component of so called mucous barrier . parietal cells . These cells perform two functions: 1) production of the hydrochloric acid (HCl) . It is known that HCl ensures the acid environment of the stomach, which: a) prevents infection of the alimentary tract; b) transfers the inactive form of enzyme ( pepsinogen ) into the active one ( pepsin ). There are 3 stimulators of HCl production: - vagal - through n.vagus ; - endocrine - through release of gastrin by the G-cells of the stomach; 1
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- local - through release of histamine . 2) production of the intrinsic factor of Castle . Its main function is to promote absorption of the extrinsic factor of Castle (a.k.a. Vitamin B12) in the alimentary tract. The lack of the intrinsic factor results in diminished absorption of Vit.B12, the deficiency of which leads to the development of B12-deficient , a.k.a. pernicious , a.k.a. megaloblastic anemia.
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